- Open Access
Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens
© Nie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 7 August 2013
- Accepted: 11 September 2013
- Published: 12 September 2013
This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P < 0.05), and the highest egg production, feed intake and average egg weights were achieved when dietary nonphytate phosphorus was at 0.3% (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of intestinal sodium phosphorus co-transporter linearly decreased when dietary nonphytate phosphorus increased. mRNA and protein expression of intestinal calbindin and vitamin D receptor correlated quadratically with dietary nonphytate phosphorus, and the highest expression was found when dietary available phosphorus was at 0.25% to 0.3%. In conclusion, the ideal phosphorus requirement for Dwarf pink-shell layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression.
- Laying hens
- Nonphytate phosphorus
- Sodium phosphate co-transporter
- Vitamin D receptor
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for animals. Phosphorus plays numerous roles in nutrient metabolism and is also an essential component of genetic material, membrane phospholipids and bone. There is increasing concern over excess phosphorus pollution in the environment from poultry production. To reduce excess phosphorus without compromising poultry production, an accurate evaluation of the amount of phosphorus required for laying hens needs to be conducted. Levels of available dietary phosphorus may adversely affect laying hens’ production and eggshell quality [1, 2]. Dwarf pink-shell laying hens are a layer strain bred by China Agricultural University that have a sex-linked dwarf gene. A normal adult laying hen of this strain weighs about 1,600 g. Laying hens with the dwarf gene are 10 cm shorter than laying hens without the gene . Because of their smaller size, the average daily feed intake during peak egg production is about 85–95 g/bird, 20–25% less than the parent strain, but egg production is increased by 10–15% compared with their counterpart laying hens . It is very likely that the dwarf hen has different phosphorus requirements. So far, little work has been done to assess the phosphorus requirements of Dwarf pink-shell laying hens.
Many factors can regulate phosphorus absorption in the small intestine. The phosphorus transporter, sodium phosphorus IIb (NaP-IIb), is reported to be positively regulated by vitamin D and vitamin D receptor. It seems that NaP-IIb expression or activity could be enhanced through the vitamin D endocrine system . Dietary calcium also has a large impact on phosphorus absorption in the small intestine of chickens . In Ca2+-transporting epithelia, calbindin-D28k could act as a Ca2+ buffer . It has been shown that dietary calcium and phosphorus have significant effects on calbindin-D28k expression in the duodenum of broiler chickens . These findings suggest that NaP-IIb, calbindin-D28k and vitamin D receptor expression could be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus absorption.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the laying performance and correlation of intestinal sodium phosphorus co-transporter, calbindin and vitamin D receptor mRNA expression in laying hens with dietary nonphytate phosphorus allowance, and estimate the phosphorus requirement for Dwarf pink-shell laying hens during peak egg production.
Experimental design and diets
The study protocol was approved and conducted in accordance with the Animal Ethics Committee guidelines of China Agricultural University.
Composition of laying hens diets
Dietary nonphytate phosphorus density, %
Trace mineral premix1
Nutrient composition, %
Methionine + Cystine
Tissue sampling and preparation
At the end of the trial, hens were killed by cervical dislocation and duodenum segments (from the gizzard to the bile duct) were removed. Duodenal mucosa was scraped off at the center of individual duodenum segments with a glass microscope slide on ice and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for later determination of protein and mRNA expression.
Test of egg quality
At 41 wk of age, egg quality parameters were checked for a total of 27 eggs from each treatment. Egg shape index was calculated by diameter/height × 100. After breakout, albumen and yolk were separated and weighed. Relative weights of albumen and yolk were calculated against egg weight. The albumen height was measured using a digital micrometer head IP54 (Swiss Precision Instruments, Inc., Garden Grove, California, USA). Yolk color was assessed using the Roche yolk color fan. Haugh units were calculated as described by Haugh . Eggshell breaking strength was determined based upon the vertical axis measured by an Instron 3360 apparatus (Instron, Canton, MA, USA). Eggshells were weighed. Shell thickness was determined at the sharp and blunt ends and equator after removing the shell membranes using a micrometer.
Total RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time quantitative PCR
Total RNA was extracted from the duodenal mucosa using SV Total RNA Isolation System instructions (Z3100, Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Concentrations of RNA were measured by absorbance at 260 nm, and the integrity of RNA was checked by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Reverse transcription of total RNA to cDNA was conducted with an Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Reverse Transcriptase kit (Promega) in the presence of recombinant RNase in Ribonuclease Inhibitor (A3500, Promega). In total, 1 μg RNA was used and Oligo (dT) 15 was used as the primer.
Oligonucleotide PCR primers used for the determination of vitamin D receptor protein and sodium phosphate type-IIb mRNA expression
Primer sequence (5′ → 3′)
Predicted size, bp
Sodium Phosphate type-IIb
Vitamin D receptor
Quantification of intestinal calbindin and vitamin D receptor proteins
Duodenum mucosa was homogenized by sonication using an Ultrasonic Cell Disruption System (JY99-IIIB; Ningbo Scientz Biotechnology Co. Ltd, Ningbo, China). Homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 5 min at 4°C and supernatants were collected and stored at −80°C. The total protein content in each supernatant was determined by using the Bradford method . Western blot analysis was performed as described by Li et al. . Band densities were analyzed using AlphaEase Stand Alone Software (Alpha Innotech, Santa Clara, CA, USA), as described by Guo et al. .
Tibia strength, tibia ash, calcium and phosphorus concentration
Tibias were directly de-fleshed and patellas were removed. Tibia breaking strengths of fresh bone were measured using a WDS-1 electric universal testing machine by three-point bending test of metaphyseal tibia with 30-mm supporting distance and 10-mm/min test speed. Tibias were air dried for 24 h at room temperature. They were defatted, dried at 105°C for 24 h and placed in a desiccator. Bone weight was recorded. Tibias were ashed at 550°C for 16 h to determine the percentages of ash, phosphorus and calcium. Phosphorus and calcium content were determined by ammonium metavanadate colorimetric and EDTA titration methods, respectively .
For all statistical analyses, each replicate served as the experimental unit. All data were analyzed using the GLM procedure in SPSS 16.0 to estimate the main effects. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Performance of laying hens
Effect of nonphytate phosphorus levels on productivity of laying hens from 30 to 41 wk of age 1
Nonphytate phosphorus, %
Egg production, %
Egg weight, g
Feed intake, g
Hen-day egg production, g
Broken egg, %
Effects of nonphytate phosphorus levels on egg quality of laying hens fed at 41 wk of age
Nonphytate phosphorus, %
Percentage of yolk, %
Percentage of albumen, %
Percentage of eggshell, %
Eggshell strength, kg/cm2
Eggshell thickness, mm
Effects of nonphytate phosphorus levels on egg quality of laying hens fed at 41 wk of age
Nonphytate phosphorus, %
Albumen height, mm
Egg shape index
Gene expression of NaP-IIb, calbindin and vitamin D receptor
Effects of different dietary phosphorus levels on gene expression of duodenal NaP-IIb, calbindin, vitamin D receptor, and protein abundance of calbindin and vitamin D receptor of laying hens at 41 wk of age
Nonphytate phosphorus, %
Duodenal NaP-IIb mRNA1
Duodenal calbindin mRNA1
Duodenal vitamin D receptor mRNA1
Duodenal calbindin protein2
Duodenal vitamin D receptor protein2
Protein abundance of duodenal calbindin and vitamin D receptor
In the duodenum, the abundance of calbindin and vitamin D receptor in the mucosa was influenced remarkably by dietary nonphytate phosphorus (P < 0.01) (Table 6). Both duodenal calbindin and vitamin D receptor displayed significant quadratic relationships with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content after 12 wk of feeding. The highest abundance of both proteins’ expression occurred when dietary nonphytate phosphorus was at 0.3%.
Tibia mineral composition and breaking strength
Mineral composition and breaking strength of hentibias influenced by different dietary phosphorus levels
Nonphytate phosphorus, %
Tibia ash1, %
Tibia phosphorus*, %
Tibia calcium*, %
Tibia breaking strength, N
Dietary nonphytate phosphorus significantly affected laying performance and feed intake in laying hens during the 12-week experimental period. The expression of NaP-IIb linearly decreased when phosphorus increased in diets. These data suggest a negative feedback effect of dietary phosphorus on its transporters. Quadratic relationships were found between dietary nonphytate phosphorus and average egg weight, egg production, feed intake, and gene and protein expression of vitamin D receptor and calbindin. The highest value was found in laying hens fed a diet with nonphytate phosphorus at the levels of 0.25 to 0.3%.
The estimated nonphytate phosphorus requirements for layers by National Research Council  were lowered from 350 mg/hen/d in 1984 to 250 mg/hen/d. Boling et al.  and Keshavarz  reported that no influence on egg production was observed in breeder or laying hens when fed low levels of nonphytate phosphorus. Summers  showed that layers fed a maize-soybean meal diet containing 0.2% nonphytate phosphorus performed similarly to laying hens fed a diet containing 0.4% nonphytate phosphorus up to 32 wk; however, egg production was significantly reduced by the lower dietary phosphorus afterwards. Nys et al.  reported that nonphytate phosphorus at 0.3% maintained normal performance and bone integrity of hens. Ahmadi and Rodehutscord conducted a meta-analysis to conclude the dietary nonphytate phosphorus requirements in laying hens based upon 12 experiments between 1999 and 2011 . Using egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio as models, 0.22% of nonphytate phosphorus without phytase supplementation resulted in the highest production performance in laying hens . In contrast, according to the present work, Dwarf pink-shell laying hens could have optimal laying performance when dietary nonphytate phosphorus is set at 0.3%. No differences in shell quality were observed either in the present study or in other studies [16, 17, 21]. The data suggest that dietary phosphorus at 0.2 to 0.4% may not affect eggshell quality. The difference in dietary nonphytate phosphorus requirements between Dwarf pink-shell laying hens and western commercial layers could come from native characteristics of low feed intake but high egg production.
To estimate the dietary nonphytate phosphorus requirement, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio as well as bone quality are commonly used in model analyses. The NaP-IIb co-transporter is the only known protein that mediates phosphorus transport through the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. Dietary nonphytate phosphorus levels are one of the main factors affecting the function of NaP-IIb in pigs . Low phosphorus intake can stimulate the uptake of phosphorus. Intestinal transport of phosphorus was dependent on NaP-IIb protein and NaP-IIb mRNA expression . In the present study, laying hens fed with dietary nonphytate phosphorus at 0.2% had significantly higher NaP-IIb mRNA expression than laying hens fed with nonphytate phosphorus at 0.4%. This could be a molecular mechanism of laying hens to keep homeostasis of phosphorus by reducing the uptake of phosphorus in the gut when dietary nonphytate phosphorus exceeds requirements.
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a critical factor for intestinal phosphate absorption . Tibia ash, tibia strength and intestinal NaP-IIb mRNA expression could be increased by dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol . NaP-IIb mRNA was transcriptionally regulated by vitamin D in the gut . Vitamin D, its metabolites, and also their receptors, could be involved in the regulation of phosphorus absorption in the gut by affecting NaP-IIb mRNA expression. In the present study, the expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA and protein displayed a quadratic correlation with dietary nonphytate phosphorus. Calbindin acts as a dynamic Ca2+ buffer, in Ca2+ transporting epithelia, and displays an important role in Ca2+ induced signal transmission . Calbindin mediates the impact of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption. In broiler chickens, calbindin mRNA was affected by both calcium and dietary nonphytate phosphorus . In the present study, all diets of the different treatments had the same level of calcium. However, the expression of calbindin at the transcriptional and protein levels changed when dietary nonphytate phosphorus was altered. These data suggest that calbindin might regulate phosphorus absorption independent of dietary calcium.
The level of dietary phosphorus was related to the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia [25, 26]. Tibial dyschondroplasia is the most common skeletal anomaly associated with fast growth in numerous bird species, the result of which is the occurrence of bone deformation and lameness . Tibia with the highest ash and phosphorus content was at the level of 0.3% dietary nonphytate phosphorus. Previous studies with broiler breeds showed that tibia parameters were affected by nonphytate phosphorus levels in the diet .
In conclusion, the optimal dietary nonphytate phosphorus allowance for Dwarf pink-shell laying hens is suggested to be 0.3% without phytase supplementation, which is comparable to National Research Council standards , but higher than the 0.25% nonphytate phosphorus level suggested by recent publications. High dietary nonphytate phosphorus can decrease intestinal gene expression of sodium phosphorus co-transporters to prevent excess phosphorus absorption in layer hens. With 0.3% nonphytate phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression.
This study was financially supported by the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund.
- Harms RH: The influence of nutrition on egg shell quality. Part II: phosphorus. Feedstuffs. 1982, 54: 25-27.Google Scholar
- Bar A, Hurwitz S: Egg shell quality, medullary bone ash, intestinal calcium and phosphorous absorption and calcium binding protein in phosphate-deficient hens. Poult Sci. 1984, 63: 1975-1979. 10.3382/ps.0631975.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ning ZH: Study on New cross strains breeding of dwarf Egg chicken and the correlative feeding management technology. 2004, Doctoral dissertatio: China Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Wang B, Yin Y: Regulation of the type IIb sodium dependent phosphate co-transporter expression in the intestine. Frontiers of Agriculture in China. 2009, 3: 226-230. 10.1007/s11703-009-0037-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Al-Masri MR: Absorption and endogenous excretion of phosphorus in growing broiler chicks, as influenced by calcium and phosphorus ratios in feed. Br J Nutr. 1995, 74: 407-415. 10.1079/BJN19950144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lambers TT, Mahieu F, Oancea E, Hoofd L, Lange F, Mensenkamp AR: Calbindin-D28K dynamically controls TRPV5-mediated Ca2+ transport. EMBO J. 2006, 25: 2978-2988. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601186.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li JH, Yuan JM, Guo YM, Yang Y, Sun QJ, Hu XF: The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus imbalance on intestinal NaPi-IIb and calbindin mRNA expression and tibia parameters of broilers. Asian Austral J Anim. 2012, 25: 552-558. 10.5713/ajas.2011.11266.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- AOAC: Official methods of analysis. 1990, Arlington, Virginia: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15Google Scholar
- Haugh RR: The haugh unit for measuring egg quality. United States Egg Poultry Magazine. 1937, 43: 522-555.Google Scholar
- Han JC, Yang XD, Zhang T, Li H, W L, Li Z: Effects of 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol on growth performance, parameters of tibia and plasma, meat quality, and type IIb sodium phosphate co-transporter gene expression of one-to twenty-one-day-old broilers. Poult Sci. 2009, 88: 323-329. 10.3382/ps.2008-00252.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bradford MM: Rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976, 72: 248-254. 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li JH, Yuan JM, Guo YM, Yang Y, Bun SD, Hu XF: The effect of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, physiological parameters, and small intestinal type IIb sodium phosphate co-transporter expression in broilers. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2011, 2: 102-110.Google Scholar
- Guo JY, Li CY, Ruan YP, Sun M, Qi XL, Zhao BS: Chronic treatment with celecoxib reverses chronic unpredictable stress-induced depressive-like behavior via reducing cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009, 612: 54-60. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.03.076.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang JJ, Wang JR, Fu ZL, Lou P, Ren H: Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on bone growth in broilers from 1 to 3 wk of age. Chinese J Anim Nutri. 2010, 22: 1088-1095.Google Scholar
- National Research Council (NRC): Committee on animal nutrition. Subcommittee on poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 1994, Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 9Google Scholar
- Boling SD, Douglas MW, Shirley RB, Parsons CM, Koelbeck KW: The effect of various dietary levels of phytase and available phosphorus on performance of laying hens. Poult Sci. 2000, 79: 535-583.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keshavarz K: Nonphytate phosphorus requirement of laying hens with and without phytase on a phase feeding program. Poult Sci. 2000, 79: 748-763.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Summers JD: Reduced dietary phosphorus levels for layers. Poult Sci. 1995, 74: 1977-1983. 10.3382/ps.0741977.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nys YM, Hincke T, Arias JL, Garcia-Ruiz JM, Solomon S: Avian egg shell mineralization. Avian Poult Biol Rev. 1999, 10: 143-166.Google Scholar
- Ahmadi H, Rodehutscord M: A meta-analysis of responses to dietary nonphytate phosphorus and phytase in laying hens. Poult Sci. 2012, 91: 2072-2078. 10.3382/ps.2012-02193.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ekmay RD, Coon CN: An examination of the p requirements of broiler breeders for performance, progeny quality and p balance 1. Nonphytate phosphorus. J Poult Sci. 2010, 9: 1043-1049.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saddoris KL, Fleet JC, Radcliffe JS: Sodium dependent phosphate uptake in the jejunum is post transcriptionally regulated in pigs fed a low phosphorus diet and is independent of dietary calcium concentration. J Nutr. 2010, 140: 731-736. 10.3945/jn.109.110080.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Radanovic T, Wagner CA, Murer H, Biber J: Regulation of intestinal phosphate transport I. Segmental expression and adaptation to low-Pi diet of the type IIb Na + −Pi cotransporter in mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol-Gastr L. 2005, 288: 496-500.Google Scholar
- Riddell C, Pass DA: The influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus on tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 1987, 31: 771-775. 10.2307/1591029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edwards HM: Studies on the etiology of tibial dyschondroplasia in chickens. J Nutr. 1984, 114: 1001-1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rizzoli R, Fleisch H, Bonjour JP: Role of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on intestinal phosphate absorption in rats with a normal vitamin D supply. J Clin Invest. 1977, 60: 639-647. 10.1172/JCI108815.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Farquharson C, Jefferies D: Chondrocytes and longitudinal bone growth: the development of tibial dyschondroplasia. Poult Sci. 2000, 79: 994-1004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim HS, Namkung H, Um JS, Kang KR, Kim BS, Paik IK: The effects of phytase supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens fed diets with different levels of non-phytate phosphorus. Asian Austral J Anim. 2001, 14: 250-257.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.