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Table 1 Studies reporting vitamin A restriction and marbling or intramuscular fat (IMF) in cattle

From: Vitamin A regulates intramuscular adipose tissue and muscle development: promoting high-quality beef production

Breed type Treatment General results/conclusions Reference
Japanese Black steers Backgrounded at about 20,000 IU vitamin A/day, low vitamin A (no extra supplementation) diet was fed from 15 to 23 months of age Maintaining a low level of serum vitamin A (≤ 20 μg/dL) before 23 months of age may contribute to higher marbling scores [6]
Black yearling steers Backgrounded at 1364 IU vitamin A/kg DM, then 0, 1103, 2205, 4410, or 8820 IU supplemental vitamin/kg DM was fed for 142 or 143 days Little effect was observed for performance, marbling, or lipogenic enzyme activity in adipose tissue [8]
Korean native steers Backgrounded at 8890 IU vitamin A/kg DM, then 8890 (Con), 3890 (T1), or 890 (T2) IU restricted vitamin A/kg DM was fed for 240 days Marbling scores in the vitamin A-restricted groups were not significantly higher than in the control group but showed a trend for a higher yield grade [9]
Feedlot heifers Backgrounded at 3640 IU vitamin A/kg DM, then 3640 or 0 IU vitamin A/kg DM was fed for 218 days Vitamin A restriction increased the degree of marbling without affecting backfat thickness [60]
Holstein steers Backgrounded at 2700 IU vitamin A/kg DM, then 2200 or 950 IU of vitamin A/kg DM was fed for 112 days or 243 days (2200 IU for 112 days and 950 IU for latter 131 days) Feeding the restricted vitamin A 243 days increased IMF without affecting subcutaneous or visceral fat deposition [61]
Feedlot heifers Backgrounded at < 1300 IU vitamin A/kg DM, then 0 or 2700 IU supplemental vitamin A/kg DM was fed for 168 days The percentage of carcasses grading ≥ Choicewas not different between treatment groups [62]
Feedlot heifers Backgrounded at < 1100 IU vitamin A/kg DM, then 0 or 2700 IU supplemental vitamin A/kg DM was fed for 112 or 227 days Vitamin A restriction did not affect USDA yield grade or marbling score [63]
Angus steers Backgrounded at a low β-carotene and vitamin A cereal-based ration (no detailed data), then 0 or 60,000 IU supplemental vitamin A/100 kg of BW/day was fed for 308 days There was greater IMF in longissimus thoracis et lumborum and greater seam fat, but there ws no significant change in marbling score [64]