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Table 2 Selected hepatic metabolite concentrations of cows treated with or without dietary carnitine

From: Changes of the liver metabolome following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide injection in Holstein cows supplemented with dietary carnitine

Metabolites, nmol/g CAR group SEM CON group SEM P-value
Before LPS After LPS Before LPS After LPS LPS CAR Interaction
Acyl-carnitines
  C2 39.9 35.3 5.28 10.5 32.6 9.33 0.32  < 0.01 NI1
  C3 17.7 22.0 2.37 6.05 7.17 1.21 0.61  < 0.01 NI
  C4 1.22 1.72 0.14 0.68 1.00 0.14  < 0.01  < 0.01 NI
  C52 1.91 2.99 0.26 1.00 1.56 0.33 0.03  < 0.01 NI
  C14 0.45 0.59 0.03 0.32 0.56 0.04  < 0.01  < 0.01 NI
  C16 0.99 1.58 0.13 0.47 0.14 0.17  < 0.01  < 0.01 NI
  C18 1.34 2.03 0.16 0.66 1.25 0.15  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01
Biogenic amines and amino acids
  Dopamine2 2.83 1.50 0.41 2.92 4.10 0.71 0.27 0.04 0.08
  Ornithine 288.9 212.5 13.0 269.5 193.0 18.9  < 0.01 0.42 NI
  Putrescine2 3.56 8.73 1.10 5.16 7.81 1.08  < 0.01 0.63 NI
  SDMA 0.80 0.35 0.09 0.74 0.52 0.13  < 0.01 0.92 NI
  Spermine2 10.8 17.1 0.31 12.3 18.3 1.00  < 0.01 0.63 NI
  Threonine2 494.3 255.5 37.9 435.3 404.5 50.8  < 0.01 0.33 0.05
  1. 1NI Not included in the mixed/linear model due to the non-significant interaction P-value (> 0.10)
  2. 2C5, dopamine, putrescine, spermine, and threonine were fitted by the linear model, while the rest of the parameters were fitted by the mixed model
  3. CAR Carnitine-treated, CON Control, Cx Acylcarnitine of x carbon chain length, SDMA Symmetric dimethylarginine
  4. ‘Before LPS’ refers to lactation d 100, while ‘after LPS’ refers to lactation d 112