Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of toxicologic studies of SeNPs in various mammalian species

From: Toxicological effects of nanoselenium in animals

Compare study Animal species  Size, nm Modification Dose Exposed time, d Effects LD50 Ref
  Mice 35   0.1 mg Se/kg diet 45 SeNPs-M showed↑ Se retention and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase 72 mg/kg [45]
  Mice 20   200 μg Se/kg BW/d 90 Under the safe dose (0.75–7.5 mg/kg), oral administration of PTR-SeNPs dramatically inhibited the growth of cancer in a tumor-bearing nude mouse mode 20 mg/kg [46]
  Mice 40–55   2 mg Se/kg BW/d 28 SeNPs, caused↓ bone marrow cell death and prevented DNA damage, compared to other forms of selenium   [47]
  Mice 20   0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg diet 14 Toxicity ↑ when inorganic Se was applied than after subacute application of Sel-Plex, nanoSe, or LactoMicroSe   [48]
  Mice 70–90   1 and 4 mg Se/kg 28 Nano-selenium at low dose (1 mg/kg) exhibited antioxidant effects in the liver compared to the high dose (4 mg/kg) of SeNPs and sodium selenite (1 and 4 mg/kg) 113.87 mg/kg [49]
  Mice 50 Chitosan 10.5 g Se/kg 45 Acute fetal test showed SeNPs-C/C was safer than selenite, with a median lethal dose (LD50) of approximately 4-fold to 11-fold of that of selenite 8.8 mg/kg [50]
Na2SeO3 Mice 5   2, 4 and 6 mg/kg BW 15 Selenite and SeNPs completely and partially suppressed mice growth respectively. Abnormal liver function was more pronounced with selenite treatment than SeNPs 15.7 mg/kg [51]
SeMetCys Mice 20–60   10 mg Se/kg 7 ↓Body growth, ireversible changes by SeMSC, reversible changes by SeNPs in liver; ↑ serum ALT and LDH in SeMSC compared to SeNPs and ctrl. ↑ GST activity in SeNPs group compared to SeMSC and ctrl; ↓ T-AOC in SeMSC group, not in SeNPs group SeMSC 14.6 mg Se/kg and SeNPs 92.1 mg Se/kg [39]
SeMet Mice 20–60   10 mg Se/kg 7 ↑Gpx and thioredoxin reductase, ↓toxicity as indicated by median lethal dose, acute liver injury, and short-term toxicity by SeNPs 27.0 mg/kg [52]
SeO2 Mice 80–220 Green synthetized via Bacillus sp. 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg BW 14 ↓ Body weight, ↑ AST, ALT, ALP, Cr, Chol, TG, TB and worsed hematological parameters in total blood at the dose of 20 mg/kg SeO2–7.3 mg/kg SeNPs 198.1 mg/kg [53]
  Rats 78.88   2, 4, and 8 mg Se/kg BW 14 ↓ Antioxidant capacity in serum, liver, heart; ↓ expression of GPx-1 and GPx-4 in liver; ↑MDA in liver   [54]
  Rats 79.88   0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mg Se/kg BW 14 ↓ Body weight, ↑ ALP, SAST, CHol, ↑ liver weight; ↓ thymus weight; ↑ Apoptotic cells count in liver   [37]
  Rats 4.6, 24.5 κ-carrageenan-capped SeNPs 500 μg/kg BW 10 ↓ Count of astroglial cells in brain; ↑ Se accumulation in liver, kidneys, brain in 4.6 nm SeNPs treated group; − changes in internal organs and glands   [37]
Na2SeO3 Rats 100–150 Green synthetized via potatoe extract, PEG coated 5, 10, 15 μg/kg 21 Organ weight in SeNPs groups; ↓ decreased weight of internal organs in sodium selenite group; no differences in heamatological parameters in sodium selenite group X markable changes in SeNPs group compared to ctrl; sodium selenite negatively affected; histopathology of liver, but not SeNPs; ↓ concentration of Se in breast milk in SeNPs compared to sodium selenite and ctrl group   [55]
Na2SeO3 Rats 20   0.05, 0.5, or 4 mg Se/kg BW 28 ↓ Body weight; − neurotransmitters, hematological parameters, histology of liver   [35]
Na2SeO3 Rats 80 PVA modified 1.2 mg Se/kg 30 ↓ GSH in liver for Se, SeNPs groups; ↑ GSSG in liver for Se, SeNPs groups; higher retention of Se in group of SeNPs compared to Se group in blood   [56]
  Rats 79.88   0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg Se/kg BW 14 The supranutritional ↑ sperm motility and movement parameters, The nonlethal levels of 4.0 and 8.0 mg Se/kg BW ↓ testisweight, sperm concentration, and motility and also caused histopathological injury of testisand epididymis tissues to various degrees   [57]
  Rats 100   0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg Se/kg 28 Histopathological examination showed damage to the liver parenchyma and intestinal epithelium, ↓ ALT activity 7 mg/kg [58]
Na2SeO3 Rats    10, 18 mg/kg 10 CK, CK-MB and LDH levels of Group IV ↑ other groups on both the 2nd and 10th days. In Groups II and III, this serum level decreased, and vitamin B12 10 mg/kg [59]
  Rats 5–100   2, 3, 4 and 5 ppm 91 The toxicity was ↑more pronounced in the selenite and high-selenium protein groups than the Nano-Se group 113 mg/kg [60]
Na2SeO3 Rats 20–60   0.0096 and 0.1 ppm 14 SeNPs has a 7-fold lower acute toxicity than sodium selenite in mice (LD50 113 and 15 mg Se/kg body weight respectively 15.7 mg/kg [61]
Na2SeO3 Rabbits    0.3 mg/kg BW 42 − Chol, TG, TP, Glu, ALT, AST, ↑ GPx mRNA expression, TAOC   
Na2SeO3 Chickens 100 Green synthetized 0.3 mg Se/kg diet 42 − Serum glucose, cholesterol, lipoprotein, thyroid hormone, and liver function levels and biomarkers of kidney function; ↓ lowest relative weight of the liver; ↑ otal protein in serum   [62]
  Chickens 60   0.15, 0.30, 0.60 and 1.20 mg/kg/d 49 Se in serum, liver and breast muscle ↑, magnitude of increase was substantially ↑ when Nano Se was fed 113.0 mg/kg [63]
SeYeast, SeMet Chickens    0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg diet 42 SeNPs improved yellowness, redness and meat quality, NS and organic sources of Se resulted in better meat quality   [64]
  Chickens 100   0.3, 0.9 and 1.5 ppm 29 inorganic Se caused↓bioavailability in breast and duodenum tissue and↑ accumulation in organs involved in detoxification compared to organic selenium SeNPs   [65]
  Chickens 200   0.15, 0.30, 0.45 ppm 32 SeHME showed ↑ expression of GPx-4 in the livers and SelW in the spleens compared with SeS treatment   [66]
  Chickens 100   0.3, 0.9 and 1.5 ppm 29 Inorganic Se leads↓ bioavailability in breast and duodenum tissue and ↑ accumulation in organs involved in detoxification processes as compared to organic Se and SeNPs   [65]
  Sheeps 40   5 mg Se/kg BW 30 HB, RBCs, and PCV in Nano-Se ↓, SLD, GOT, CTT and AP in Nano-Se group was↑. Levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, IL-2,TNF-α in NanoSe group were↓ than those of the control.   [67]
SeMet, Na2SeO3 Piglets 28–59   0.3 mg Se/kg diet 28 ↑ Glutathion peroxidasis, expression of selenoprotein W (SELW), GPx1, and GPx3 in the liver   [68]
  Pigs 100   0.5 mg Se/kg diet 45 − Performance; ↑ concentration Se in muscle, T-AOC, GPx, SOD, CAT; ↓ MDA   [69]
SeYeast Sheep    4 mg/kg 25 Ruminal pH, ammonia N concentration, molar proportion of propionate, ratio of acetate to propionate ↓and total ruminal VFA concentration was ↑ with NS and YS   [70]
Na2SeO3 Cows 100   0.3 mg Se/kg diet 30 −Matter intake, milk yield and composition; ↑ plasma Se levels and GPx; ↓ mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 1, 2 and 4; thioredoxin reductase 2 and 3; and selenoproteins W, T, K and F   [71]