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Table 5 Plasma free amino acid concentrations of growing pigs fed low-protein diets

From: Different dietary starch patterns in low-protein diets: effect on nitrogen efficiency, nutrient metabolism, and intestinal flora in growing pigs

Items W LP C + W LP C LP P + W LP P LP SEM1 P-value
Essential amino acids, μmol/L
 Lysine 193.75 186.80 192.99 184.23 193.29 13.59 0.761
 Methionine 38.27a 39.85a 40.79a 22.73b 34.30a 3.21 0.038
 Threonine 134.37ab 112.11b 156.53a 169.01a 120.61b 9.10 0.050
 Tryptophan 53.89 55.99 54.04 58.42 50.14 4.88 0.662
 Isoleucine 143.83 130.90 164.25 157.92 148.31 13.91 0.295
 Valine 167.45 130.89 135.64 170.67 151.29 15.77 0.193
 Arginine 187.40a 138.29b 147.71ab 138.25b 129.40b 14.20 < 0.001
 Histidine 92.25ab 74.46b 69.74b 111.68a 73.87b 8.01 0.048
 Phenylalanine 93.44 88.92 90.69 84.81 93.02 5.51 0.526
 Total EAA 1104 958 1052 1097 994 65 0.440
Non-essential amino acids, μmol/L
 Aspartic acid 74.46 69.13 72.64 75.41 73.52 4.51 0.214
 Glutamine 318.44 328.10 310.45 324.92 322.20 14.39 0.588
 Glutamate 146.15ab 154.90ab 195.08a 132.51b 175.78ab 18.20 0.045
 Alanine 194.03a 107.76b 126.14b 108.56b 129.69b 10.46 0.018
 Cystine 66.28a 46.84b 51.31b 57.93ab 51.15b 4.52 0.044
 Glycine 473.45a 439.48a 427.28a 309.02b 417.49a 22.91 0.008
 Proline 142.50 126.59 134.49 121.52 133.99 10.77 0.523
 Serine 86.62 78.29 89.62 82.62 92.62 6.76 0.146
 Tyrosine 173.33 166.77 166.65 173.13 165.69 12.65 0.291
 Taurine 74.76abc 78.56ab 85.96a 79.96ab 62.28c 5.27 0.021
 Asparagine 168.53ab 178.60a 165.93ab 115.43c 125.53bc 15.73 0.008
 Citrulline 71.52a 55.35b 73.03a 78.15a 78.25a 2.78 < 0.001
 Ornithine 134.00 129.12 141.52 135.64 144.87 7.09 0.553
 Total NEAA 2176a 2010abc 2101ab 1854c 2030abc 81 0.027
 Total AA, μmol/L 3280 2969 3150 2952 3024 135 0.674
  1. a-c Means in the same row with different superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05)
  2. 1n = 6
  3. W LP waxy corn starch low-protein diet, C + W LP corn starch + waxy corn starch low-protein diet, C LP corn starch low-protein diet, P + W LP pea starch + waxy corn starch low-protein diet, P LP pea starch low-protein diet, NEAA non-essential amino acid. Values are means of 6 observations per treatment