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Table 1 Effects of milk oligosaccharides on intestinal development and health

From: Role of milk carbohydrates in intestinal health of nursery pigs: a review

Model Effects Source Reference
In vitro ↑ Differentiation in HT-29 cells by 36% and HIEC cells by 32% Sialyllactose [96]
↑ Apoptosis in HT-29 cells by 300% and in HIEC cells by 200% Neutral oligosaccharides
 ↑ Inhibition enteropathogenic E. coli adhesion by 40% to HEp-2 cells HMO [155]
Intestinal microbial colonization
Enterococcus by 88%, Streptococcus by 89%, Veillonella by 42%, Eubacterium by 81%, Clostridium by 80%, and E. coli by 73%,
Bifidobacterium infantis. by 20% and Bacteroides vulgatus by 24%
HMO [67]
↑ HMO consumption and growth of bifidobacterial strains by maximum 200% HMO [156]
↓ Binding activity of pathogen (Neisseria meningitidis) to carbohydrate receptors by 80% HMO + BMO2 [157]
↓ The release of mucosal proinflammatory signals of IL-8 by 60 to 70% and IL-1β attenuated C. jejuni invasion by 80 to 90%
↓ Acute-phase mucosal immune response by 50 to 60%
Fucosyllactose [158]
↑ Re-epithelialization of Ca9–22 cells by 86%
Bifidobacterium in infant batch culture by 206%
↑ Bacteroides in infant batch culture by 480%
Sialyllactose [159]
↓ IL-8 secretion by 20% in HCT8 IECs induced by Enterotoxigenic E. coli infection
↓ CD14 transcription and translation cells in E. coli infected mice by 65%
HMO [160]
↑ Cell apoptosis by 20% and necrosis by 56% in Caco-2Bbe cells
↑ Cell differentiation in HT-29 cells by 25%
HMO [161]
↓ Adhesion of E. coli by 25%, V. cholerae by 9%, and S. fyris by 9% to Caco-2 cells HMO [148]
↓ Adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells Fucosyllactose + Sialyllactose [162]
↑ Binding with bacterial toxins including CTB5, HLTB5, Stx1B5, Stx2, TcdA2 and TcdB1 with ranging from 600 to 15,000 M− 1 HMO [152]
Human ↓ Significantly frequency of diarrhea in infants Fucosylated oligosaccharides [163]
Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium
↓ Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in fecal microbiota
Fucosyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose [164]
↑ Firmicutes in the feces of infants by 250%,
↓ Enterobacteriales infants by 50%,
HMO [165]
Rodent ↑ Abundance of Lactobacillus by 30% in cecal and colonic microbiota
↓ mRNA levels of colonic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by 70% in cecum and colon
BMO [166]
↓ Gene expression of TNF-a by 85%, IL-6 by 50%, and IL-1ß by 70% in colon of mice
↑ Gene expression of TGF-ß by 90% and occludin by 95% in colon of mice
Fucosyllactose [167]
Porcine ↑Glutamate dehydrogenase by 44% in the serum Sialyllactose [168]
↓ Diarrhea occurrence by 32% induced by rotavirus
↑ Dry matter contents by 5% of colonic contents
↑ IFN-γ by 25% and Il-10 by 30% in the ileum
↑ Relative abundance of Lachnospiraeae as butyrate-producing bacteria by 100% in colon
HMO [169]
↑ Length of villi by 16% in the ileum
↓ BW loss by 80% induced by E.coli challenge
Fucosyllactose [170]
↑ Il-12 by 300% in the ileum, short chain fatty acids production by 43%, and expression of TLR4 by 40% in the colon HMO [171]
  1. 1Human milk oligosaccharides
  2. 2Bovine milk oligosaccharides