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Table 1 Resistome in the digestive tract of swine based on metagenome sequencing

From: A review of the resistome within the digestive tract of livestock

Sample Use of antimicrobials Name of antimicrobial Major findings Reference
(n = 6)
NM –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by MLS, aminoglycoside, and β-lactam. [30]
(n = 6)
Yes NS –For both 1- and 8-month-old pigs, tracycline was the most abundant ARG, followed by aminoglycoside MLS.
–The abundances of bleomycin, fosmidomycin, and polymyxin decreased over age (8- vs. 1-month-old)
[120, 121]
(n = 181)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by macrolide in all 9 countries.
–Countries with similarly high (such as Spain and Italy) or low (Denmark and the Netherlands) usage of antimicrobials have similar resistome profiles
(n = 25)
Yes NS –Positive associations between use of antimicrobials and ARG for macrolides and tetracyclines, but not for β-lactams classes. [123]
(n = 6)
Yes Oxytetracycline –127 ARGs related to 19 classes were identified.
–41 ARGs, mainly from the tetracycline, β-lactam and MDR classes were enriched after administration.
(n = 24)
Yes Tulathromycin –The abundance of fecal ARGs in piglets changed over time.
–Perinatal use of tulathromycin had no effect on the abundance of ARGs in piglets.
(n = 26)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by MLS. [126]
(n = 4)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by aminoglycoside, and MDR. [127]
(n = 38)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by aminoglycosides, MLS, and oxazolidinones. [128]
(n = 23) and colon content
(n = 24)
Yes Chlortetracycline and virginiamycin –No significant difference in the structure and diversity of ARGs and MGE after administration of low-dose antimicrobials.
–Predominant by tetracycline, followed by macrolide, aminoglycoside, lincosamide, and streptogramin in colon.
–Predominant by tetracycline, followed by penam, fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and cephalosporin in ileum.
–No difference in structure and diversity of ARGs and MGE after administration for both samples.
(n = 16)
No –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by MLS, aminoglycoside and β-lactam. [130]
(n = 36)
NM –Predominant by tetracycline, with tetQ, tetW, tetO, tet32, and tet44 being the most abundant. [131]
  1. ARG antimicrobial resistant gene, MGE mobille genomic element, MLS macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, MDR multidrug resistance, NM not mentioned, NS not specified.