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Table 3 Effect of dietary vitamin K (VK) supplementation and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) challenge on tibia parameters of laying hens (n = 12)

From: Vitamin K alleviates bone calcium loss caused by Salmonella Enteritidis through carboxylation of osteocalcin

VK, mg/kg SEc Tibia length, cm Fresh tibia weight, g Dry tibia weight, g Tibia strength, N Total BMDd, g/cm2 Medullary area, cm2
Week 42 Week 44 Week 42 Week 44 Week 42 Week 44 Week 42 Week 44 Week 42 Week 44 Week 42 Week 44
0 11.53 11.67 9.73 9.97 4.99 5.13 183.25b 235.50b 0.29 0.28 1.42 1.59
0 +   11.43   9.39   4.98   209.44b   0.28   1.91
2 11.66 11.46 9.46 9.61 5.00 5.08 221.14a 364.00a 0.28 0.32 1.52 0.87
2 +   11.58   9.75   5.25   220.75b   0.29   1.65
  SEMe 0.079 0.101 0.248 0.253 0.131 0.190 12.320 28.053 0.033 0.023 0.312 0.193
0   11.55 9.68 5.06 222.47b 0.28 1.76a
2   11.53 9.69 5.17 287.60a 0.30 1.26b
  SEMe 0.072 0.182 0.137 20.185 0.016 0.140
  11.57 9.80 5.11 295.47a 0.30 1.19b
  + 11.51 9.57 5.11 215.09b 0.29 1.77a
  SEMe 0.072 0.182 0.137 20.185 0.016 0.140
  VK 0.260 0.781 0.446 0.984 0.923 0.573 0.049 0.017 0.851 0.306 0.836 0.017
P-values4 SE 0.571 0.400 0.963 0.004 0.531 0.009
  VE × SE 0.094 0.168 0.418 0.045 0.589 0.253
  1. a, bMeans within a column with no common superscripts differ (P < 0.05)
  2. cSE Salmonella Enteritidis; −, without SE challenge; +, with SE challenge
  3. dTotal BMD Total bone mineral density
  4. eSEM Pooled standard error of the mean
  5. 4P-values for main effect of VK, the main effect of SE challenge, and the interaction between the VK treatments and SE challenge