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Table 4 Total amounts (concentration × volume) of amino acids, agmatine, polyamines, and hexose sugars (mg) in allantoic fluid

From: Pre-implantation exogenous progesterone and pregnancy in sheep. II. Effects on fetal-placental development and nutrient transporters in late pregnancy

Nutrient Effect
Treatment Litter size Fetal sex
CO P4 Single Twin Male Female
Amino acid
 Alanine 39 ± 6.1 30.9 ± 9 40.8 ± 7.4 31.3 ± 7.3 40.9 ± 6.5 25.6 ± 8.5
 β-Alanine 51.2 ± 12.2 36.4 ± 9.8 39.2 ± 14.7 48.6 ± 9.3 45.3 ± 8.1 43.6 ± 17.9
 Arginine 57.4 ± 9.8 64.2 ± 20.6 46.4 ± 9.3 70.1 ± 16.4 75.2 ± 14.4a 33.2 ± 10.1b
 Asparagine 11 ± 3.7 7.3 ± 2 9.2 ± 2 9.5 ± 3.6 11.48 ± 3.3a 5.4 ± 1.6b
 Aspartate 4 ± 0.6 5.7 ± 0.8 4.7 ± 0.8 4.8 ± 0.6 5.3 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.7
 Citrulline 16.3 ± 3.9 8.7 ± 2.2 14.9 ± 2.8 11.5 ± 3.7 15.7 ± 3.2 7.8 ± 3.2
 Glutamate 15.2 ± 1.6a 10.8 ± 1.2b 13.5 ± 1.5 13.1 ± 1.5 14.3 ± 1.1 11.4 ± 2.2
 Glutamine 54.5 ± 10.3 58.1 ± 15.6 70.1 ± 12.4 45.4 ± 12.2 71.3 ± 11.8a 29.7 ± 9.8b
 Glycine 27.4 ± 5 29.8 ± 6.8 30.8 ± 6.2 26.8 ± 5.4 35 ± 5.1a 16.4 ± 5.2b
 Histidine 19.8 ± 5.9 15.4 ± 3.6 19.5 ± 3.1 16.7 ± 5.9 18.6 ± 2.7a 8.2 ± 2.4b
 Isoleucine 5.6 ± 1.9 3.4 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 1.8 5.8 ± 1.6a 2.4 ± 0.9b
 Leucine 12.2 ± 3.8 7.2 ± 1.7 10.4 ± 1.7 9.7 ± 3.7 9.3 ± 1.4 5.9 ± 2
 Lysine 27.9 ± 3.9 31.2 ± 7.4 34.4 ± 6.2 35 ± 10.5 41.8 ± 9.4a 21.9 ± 5.9b
 Methionine 4.1 ± 1.5 3.5 ± 1 3.3 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 1.4 3.4 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.7
 Ornithine 11.51 ± 2.2 16.2 ± 5.4 17.8 ± 3.3 10.6 ± 3.8 14 ± 3.7 12.9 ± 3.5
 Phenylalanine 6.4 ± 1.6 5 ± 1.1 6.9 ± 1 4.9 ± 1.6 7.2 ± 1.4a 3.2 ± 0.9b
 Serine 1099 ± 143.3 998.4 ± 174.2 908.6 ± 147.4 1105 ± 157.6 1219 ± 103.7a 667 ± 219.8b
 Taurine 417.8 ± 65.1 358.9 ± 58.7 496.9 ± 81.9a 318.2 ± 43.5b 473.2 ± 58.7a 242.5 ± 38.8b
 Threonine 27 ± 7.3 24 ± 6.3 30.6 ± 7.9 22.2 ± 6.2 33.8 ± 6.8a 10.8 ± 3.1b
 Tryptophan 7.6 ± 1.1 7.9 ± 1.4 9 ± 1.1 6.9 ± 1.2 9.1 ± 1a 4.8 ± 1b
 Tyrosine 14 ± 4.4 9.1 ± 3.4 8.1 ± 1.3 14.4 ± 4.8 12.8 ± 3.6 10.1 ± 5.1
 Valine 15.6 ± 3.7 9.5 ± 2.6 16.8 ± 3.2 10.2 ± 3.3 15.4 ± 3.2 8.2 ± 3.1
Agmatine and polyamines
 Agmatine 5.3 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.8 6.7 ± 0.9 4.6 ± 0.6 6.1 ± 0.6 4.3 ± 1.1
 Putrescine 0.26 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.04 0.24 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.05 0.26 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.07
 Spermidine 0.006 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.01 0.051 ± 0.01 0.076 ± 0.01 0.086 ± 0.02a 0.057 ± 0.007b
 Spermine 0.11 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.02
Hexose sugars
 Glucose 11.9 ± 1.6 10.6 ± 1.0 12.4 ± 1.3 10.6 ± 1.4 11.6 ± 1 11 ± 2
 Fructose 667.6 ± 144.3 688.7 ± 117.2 574.7 ± 87.6 748.4 ± 148.3 676.4 ± 93.6 677.7 ± 212.5
  1. Total amounts of nutrients in allantoic fluid from ewes treated with either CO (n = 14) or P4 (n = 10), from either singleton (n = 14) or twin pregnancies (n = 10), and associated with either male (n = 21) or female (n = 13) fetuses. Values represent means ± SEM. Different superscripts within Effect columns are significantly different (P < 0.05)