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Table 2 Concentrations of amino acids, agmatine, polyamines (nmol/mL), and hexose sugars (μmol/L) in maternal plasma

From: Pre-implantation exogenous progesterone and pregnancy in sheep. II. Effects on fetal-placental development and nutrient transporters in late pregnancy

Nutrient Effect
Treatment Pregnancy type
CO P4 Single Twin
Amino acid
 Alanine 176.9 ± 16 173.4 ± 11.1 172.1 ± 11.1 179.8 ± 19.5
 β-Alanine 10.9 ± 1.3 10.2 ± 0.6 10.7 ± 1.2 10.4 ± 1
 Arginine 118 ± 8.4 121.7 ± 11.3 134.7 ± 8.2a 100.6 ± 7.9b
 Asparagine 24 ± 2.5 22.6 ± 1.8 21.5 ± 2.2 25.8 ± 2.3
 Aspartate 1.0 ± 0.2 0.84 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2a 0.67 ± 0.2b
 Citrulline 96 ± 14.1 102.7 ± 10.3 112.6 ± 15.1 81 ± 6.1
 Glutamate 202.1 ± 14.7 213.6 ± 26.1 181.1 ± 12.1a 239.3 ± 23.4b
 Glutamine 56.6 ± 6.9 50.5 ± 11.1 50.3 ± 8.3 59.1 ± 8.7
 Glycine 428.2 ± 28.2 440.4 ± 25 431.4 ± 25 435.2 ± 28.8
 Histidine 23.5 ± 1.8 22.2 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 1.5 23.7 ± 1.9
 Isoleucine 74.1 ± 7.3 66.3 ± 5.4 75.6 ± 6.3 65.1 ± 7.6
 Leucine 114.9 ± 10.8 94.5 ± 5.6 115.1 ± 8.4 96.2 ± 11.6
 Lysine 71.2 ± 9 68.2 ± 9.8 75.1 ± 9.3 63.5 ± 9
 Methionine 20 ± 1.8 20.7 ± 1.3 20.7 ± 1.4 19.8 ± 2.1
 Ornithine 23.6 ± 3.7 23.7 ± 3.6 28.6 ± 3.7a 17.2 ± 2.7b
 Phenylalanine 36.7 ± 3.2 34.8 ± 1.5 37.1 ± 1.9 37.2 ± 3.9
 Serine 66.7 ± 7.8 58.3 ± 4.8 57.6 ± 7.1 70.6 ± 6.7
 Taurine 60.3 ± 5.3 61.6 ± 5.9 61.4 ± 5.1 60.2 ± 6.2
 Threonine 68.1 ± 9 54.6 ± 5.2 75.1 ± 7.2a 46.9 ± 7.5b
 Tryptophan 22.4 ± 1.9 22 ± 1.7 23.2 ± 1.4 21.1 ± 2.4
 Tyrosine 49.3 ± 4.3 49 ± 3.6 53.1 ± 3.4 44.2 ± 4.8
 Valine 138.9 ± 14.3 119.1 ± 10.7 148.2 ± 10.3a 109.1 ± 15.5b
Agmatine and polyamines
 Agmatine 130.3 ± 13.4 166.1 ± 18.3 155.6 ± 15.4 130.5 ± 6.1
 Putrescine 2.1 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.3
 Spermidine 1.7 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4
 Spermine 0.73 ± 0.2 0.45 ± 0.1 0.76 ± 0.2 0.44 ± 0.1
Hexose sugars
 Glucose 1485 ± 162.9 1617 ± 110.7 1691 ± 137.9 1296 ± 144.2
 Fructose 331.5 ± 33.8 303.2 ± 39.8 324.3 ± 32.9 313.2 ± 41.7
  1. Concentrations of nutrients in maternal plasma from ewes treated with either CO (n = 14) or P4 (n = 10) that carried either singleton (n = 14) or twin pregnancies (n = 10). Values represent means ± SEM. Different superscripts within Effect columns are significantly different (P < 0.05)