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Table 4 Application of phenolic compounds with major physiological responses in swine

From: Phenolic compounds as natural feed additives in poultry and swine diets: a review

Phenolic compounds Study design Main findings Reference
Polyphenols
(procyanidins)
Type: crossbred piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshine)
dose: 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg
source: commercial (grape seed procyanidins)
form: powder
duration: 1-28 days
higher maltase and sucrase in jejunum mucosa
lower urea nitrogen, diamine oxidase, endotoxin in blood
lower digestibility of DM, GE, and CP
decreased lipase and amylase activities of pancreas and duodenum
[168]
Polyphenols Type: weaned piglets (Songliao black pigs)
dose: 5%
source: grape pomace
form: powder
duration: 28-56 days
no effects on ADG, FI, and FCR
higher number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Olsenella umbonata and Selenomonas bovis in caecum
higher villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio of jejunum
lower MRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α)
higher IgG in serum
[169]
Phenolic compounds Type: piglets (Landrace × Large White × Duroc)
dose: 9% solid
source: grape pomace
form: silage
duration: 20-50 days
higher ADG and final body weight
higher GSH, H2O2 and TAC in intestinal tissue
decreased in TBARS and CARB in intestinal tissue
higher lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacteria in feces
lower Enterobacteriacae and Campylobacter jejuni in feces
higher n-3 fatty acids in meat
lower n-6/n-3 ratio in meat
[170]
Polyphenol Type: male finishing pigs (Yorkshire × Duroc × Landrace)
dose: 5%
source: fermented apple pomace
form: silage
duration: 53 days
no effects on ADG, and final body weight
lower DM intake with higher FCR
no effects on carcass weight, and back fat thickness
higher moisture content with lower ash and water holding capacity of meat
higher linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3) and arachidic acid (C20:0) and total PUFA in back fat
lower palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1)
[171]
Procyanidins Type: piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshine)
dose: 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg
source: grape seed extract
form: powder
duration: 0-28 days
no effects on body weight gain, FI, and FCR
decreased diarrhea rate
higher IgG, IgM, C-4, IL-2, T-AOC, SOD, GSH-Px in serum
lower MDA in serum
[172]
Tannic acid Type: weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshine)
dose: 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg
source: commercial (Chinese gallnut)
form: microencapsulated
duration: 21-35 days
no effects on ADG, FI, and FCR
lower crypt depth with higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth of duodenum
higher gene expression of solute carrier family 6, member 19 and solute carrier family 15, member 1 in ileum
lower gene expression of solute carrier family 5, member 1 in jejunum
lower maltase activities in ileum
improved colonic bacterial community
[173]
Tannic acid Type: piglets (Landrace × Yorkshine × Duroc)
source: commercial (chestnut wood, 75% tannins)
dose: 1000 mg/kg
form: powder
duration: 0-28 days
no effects on ADG, FI, and FCR
higher CAT, GSH-Px, IgM and lower MDA in serum
improved trypsin, lipase and amylase activities
higher villus height of jejunum
higher propionic acid, butyric acid, and acetic acid concentrations in the colon
lower diarrhea incidence
[6]
Tannins Type: piglets (German Landrace × Pietrain) and in-vitro (cecal fermentation)
dose: 1.13, 2.25, 4.5 g/kg; and 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 g/L (in vitro)
source: commercial (chestnut wood extract, 75% tannins)
form: powder
duration: 0-28 days
lower total gas production, concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids (in vitro)
improved FCR
decreased caecal concentrations of ammonia, iso-butyric, and iso-valeric acid
higher number of lactobacilli in jejunum
[174]
Tannic acid Type: fattening boars (Landrace × Large White)
source: commercial extract (75% tannins)
dose: 1%, 2% and 3%
form: powder
duration: 123-193 days
higher villus height and mucosal thickness in duodenum
decreased mitosis and apoptosis count in large intestine
[175]
Hydrolysable tannic acid Type: Swiss Large White boars
dose: 15 mg and 30 mg/kg
source: commercial (chestnut)
form: powder
duration: 105-165 days
no effects on FI, ADG and carcass traits
improved feed efficacy
reduced size of salivary and bulbourethral gland
[176]
Polyphenols (condensed tannins) Type: MO25C-barrows (Moura × Landrace, and Large White)
dose: 10%
source: grape pomace
form: powder
duration: 21 days
no effects on production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the loin samples
higher redness value of pork
[177]
Hydrolysable tannic acid Type: male pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc)
source: commercial (albumin tannate, 500 g TA/kg)
dose: 125, 250, 750 and 1000 mg/kg
form: powder
duration: 0-28 days
reduced ADG but improve FCR
lower faecal coliform count
higher excretion of Fe in faeces
lower total erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit in plasma
[178]
Essential oil Type: crossbred piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White)
dose: 0.025%
source: commercial (4.5% cinnamaldehyde and 13.5% thymol)
form: powder
duration: 0-28 days
higher ADG, DM, CP, and energy retention
higher villus height of jejunum
lower E. coli and total anaerobes in rectum
higher albumin, IgA, IgG, and T-AOC in plasma
[179]
Essential oil Type: wined piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire)
dose: 50, 100, 150 g/t
source: commercial (cinnamaldehyde and thymol)
form: powder
duration: 36-71 days
higher FI, ADG, final body weight
lower FCR
decreased diarrhea
lower E. coli in feces
higher, IgA, IgG, C3, C4 in blood
[180]
Essential oil Type: wined piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire)
dose: 30 mg/kg
source: commercial (25% thymol and 25% carvacrol)
form: powder
duration: 0-28 days
higher ADG, DM, CP, Ca, P, and GE digestibility
higher number of Lactobacilli counts in feces
higher villi height of duodenum
higher trypsin and chymotrypsin activities
[181]
Essential oil Type: male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White)
dose: 50, 100 and 200 ppm
source: commercial (13.5% thymol and 4.5% cinnamaldehyde)
form: silage
duration: 53 days
higher ADG and DM digestibility
lower TC, TG in serum
higher goblet cell and lactase activities in jejunum
higher ratio of villus and crypt depth in ileum
higher sucrose activities in duodenum
higher expression of occluding and glucose transporter-2 gene in duodenum and ileum
[182]