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Table 4 Application of phenolic compounds with major physiological responses in swine

From: Phenolic compounds as natural feed additives in poultry and swine diets: a review

Phenolic compounds

Study design

Main findings




Type: crossbred piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshine)

dose: 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg

source: commercial (grape seed procyanidins)

form: powder

duration: 1-28 days

higher maltase and sucrase in jejunum mucosa

lower urea nitrogen, diamine oxidase, endotoxin in blood

lower digestibility of DM, GE, and CP

decreased lipase and amylase activities of pancreas and duodenum



Type: weaned piglets (Songliao black pigs)

dose: 5%

source: grape pomace

form: powder

duration: 28-56 days

no effects on ADG, FI, and FCR

higher number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Olsenella umbonata and Selenomonas bovis in caecum

higher villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio of jejunum

lower MRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α)

higher IgG in serum


Phenolic compounds

Type: piglets (Landrace × Large White × Duroc)

dose: 9% solid

source: grape pomace

form: silage

duration: 20-50 days

higher ADG and final body weight

higher GSH, H2O2 and TAC in intestinal tissue

decreased in TBARS and CARB in intestinal tissue

higher lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacteria in feces

lower Enterobacteriacae and Campylobacter jejuni in feces

higher n-3 fatty acids in meat

lower n-6/n-3 ratio in meat



Type: male finishing pigs (Yorkshire × Duroc × Landrace)

dose: 5%

source: fermented apple pomace

form: silage

duration: 53 days

no effects on ADG, and final body weight

lower DM intake with higher FCR

no effects on carcass weight, and back fat thickness

higher moisture content with lower ash and water holding capacity of meat

higher linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3) and arachidic acid (C20:0) and total PUFA in back fat

lower palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1)



Type: piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshine)

dose: 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg

source: grape seed extract

form: powder

duration: 0-28 days

no effects on body weight gain, FI, and FCR

decreased diarrhea rate

higher IgG, IgM, C-4, IL-2, T-AOC, SOD, GSH-Px in serum

lower MDA in serum


Tannic acid

Type: weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshine)

dose: 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg

source: commercial (Chinese gallnut)

form: microencapsulated

duration: 21-35 days

no effects on ADG, FI, and FCR

lower crypt depth with higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth of duodenum

higher gene expression of solute carrier family 6, member 19 and solute carrier family 15, member 1 in ileum

lower gene expression of solute carrier family 5, member 1 in jejunum

lower maltase activities in ileum

improved colonic bacterial community


Tannic acid

Type: piglets (Landrace × Yorkshine × Duroc)

source: commercial (chestnut wood, 75% tannins)

dose: 1000 mg/kg

form: powder

duration: 0-28 days

no effects on ADG, FI, and FCR

higher CAT, GSH-Px, IgM and lower MDA in serum

improved trypsin, lipase and amylase activities

higher villus height of jejunum

higher propionic acid, butyric acid, and acetic acid concentrations in the colon

lower diarrhea incidence



Type: piglets (German Landrace × Pietrain) and in-vitro (cecal fermentation)

dose: 1.13, 2.25, 4.5 g/kg; and 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 g/L (in vitro)

source: commercial (chestnut wood extract, 75% tannins)

form: powder

duration: 0-28 days

lower total gas production, concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids (in vitro)

improved FCR

decreased caecal concentrations of ammonia, iso-butyric, and iso-valeric acid

higher number of lactobacilli in jejunum


Tannic acid

Type: fattening boars (Landrace × Large White)

source: commercial extract (75% tannins)

dose: 1%, 2% and 3%

form: powder

duration: 123-193 days

higher villus height and mucosal thickness in duodenum

decreased mitosis and apoptosis count in large intestine


Hydrolysable tannic acid

Type: Swiss Large White boars

dose: 15 mg and 30 mg/kg

source: commercial (chestnut)

form: powder

duration: 105-165 days

no effects on FI, ADG and carcass traits

improved feed efficacy

reduced size of salivary and bulbourethral gland


Polyphenols (condensed tannins)

Type: MO25C-barrows (Moura × Landrace, and Large White)

dose: 10%

source: grape pomace

form: powder

duration: 21 days

no effects on production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the loin samples

higher redness value of pork


Hydrolysable tannic acid

Type: male pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc)

source: commercial (albumin tannate, 500 g TA/kg)

dose: 125, 250, 750 and 1000 mg/kg

form: powder

duration: 0-28 days

reduced ADG but improve FCR

lower faecal coliform count

higher excretion of Fe in faeces

lower total erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit in plasma


Essential oil

Type: crossbred piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White)

dose: 0.025%

source: commercial (4.5% cinnamaldehyde and 13.5% thymol)

form: powder

duration: 0-28 days

higher ADG, DM, CP, and energy retention

higher villus height of jejunum

lower E. coli and total anaerobes in rectum

higher albumin, IgA, IgG, and T-AOC in plasma


Essential oil

Type: wined piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire)

dose: 50, 100, 150 g/t

source: commercial (cinnamaldehyde and thymol)

form: powder

duration: 36-71 days

higher FI, ADG, final body weight

lower FCR

decreased diarrhea

lower E. coli in feces

higher, IgA, IgG, C3, C4 in blood


Essential oil

Type: wined piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire)

dose: 30 mg/kg

source: commercial (25% thymol and 25% carvacrol)

form: powder

duration: 0-28 days

higher ADG, DM, CP, Ca, P, and GE digestibility

higher number of Lactobacilli counts in feces

higher villi height of duodenum

higher trypsin and chymotrypsin activities


Essential oil

Type: male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White)

dose: 50, 100 and 200 ppm

source: commercial (13.5% thymol and 4.5% cinnamaldehyde)

form: silage

duration: 53 days

higher ADG and DM digestibility

lower TC, TG in serum

higher goblet cell and lactase activities in jejunum

higher ratio of villus and crypt depth in ileum

higher sucrose activities in duodenum

higher expression of occluding and glucose transporter-2 gene in duodenum and ileum