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Table 2 The effect of alfalfa hay or concentrate starter on ruminal fermentation and blood parameter of pre-weaned lambs1

From: Transcriptomic analysis reveals the molecular mechanisms of rumen wall morphological and functional development induced by different solid diet introduction in a lamb model

Item M MH MC SEM P-value
Ruminal fermentation parameter
 pH 6.60a 6.85a 5.14b 0.17 < 0.001
 Total VFA, mmol/L 8.36c 99.53b 174.38a 14.57 < 0.001
 Acetate, mmol/L 4.21c 67.43b 94.60a 8.93 < 0.001
 Propionate, mmol/L 2.20c 22.89b 43.50a 3.76 < 0.001
 Isobutyrate, mmol/L 0.43b 0.92a 0.48b 0.06 < 0.001
 Butyrate, mmol/L 0.81c 6.46b 29.34a 3.19 < 0.001
 Isovalerate, mmol/L 0.55b 0.80a 0.51b 0.04 0.007
 Valerate, mmol/L 0.17c 1.03b 5.95a 0.58 < 0.001
 Acetate: propionate 2.00 3.05 2.24 0.20 0.069
 NH3-N, mmol/L 11.45a 3.09b 4.41b 0.89 < 0.001
 MCP, mg/mL 0.20c 0.81b 3.02a 0.29 < 0.001
Blood parameter
 Glucose, mmol/L 6.56 5.95 6.71 0.25 0.438
 Insulin, μIU/mL 44.41 42.07 37.09 2.90 0.554
 IGF-1, ng/mL 392.06 358.67 346.80 17.01 0.588
 BHBA, mmol/L 0.31 0.47 0.58 0.05 0.125
  1. 1Values are shown as means ± pooled SEM, n = 8. Mean values within a column with unlike superscript letters were significantly different (P < 0.05). M goat milk group, MH goat milk plus alfalfa hay group, MC goat milk plus concentrate diet group, VFA volatile fatty acids, MCP microbial crude protein, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1, BHBA β-hydroxybutyric acid