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Table 6 Plasma concentrations of amino acids and amino acid metabolites of pigs fed isonitrogenous diets without (CON) or with 5% insect meal (IM5) or 10% insect meal (IM10) for 4 weeks

From: Comprehensive evaluation of the metabolic effects of insect meal from Tenebrio molitor L. in growing pigs by transcriptomics, metabolomics and lipidomics

  CON IM5 IM10 P-value
Amino acids, μmol/L
 Alanine 725 ± 74b 720 ± 95b 860 ± 88a 0.002
 Arginine 191 ± 32 191 ± 39 175 ± 40 0.532
 Asparagine 101.3 ± 19.4a 89.2 ± 18.3ab 77.1 ± 14.3b 0.017
 Aspartate 27.8 ± 4.5 27.0 ± 8.2 29.4 ± 5.7 0.704
 Citrulline 80.4 ± 14.6b 78.8 ± 8.7b 92.8 ± 12.9a 0.038
 Glutamine 775 ± 86 741 ± 129 746 ± 104 0.747
 Glutamate 344 ± 36b 374 ± 138ab 457 ± 92a 0.041
 Glycine 1267 ± 148 1401 ± 235 1421 ± 252 0.241
 Histidine 37.6 ± 11.9 43.0 ± 11.4 38.1 ± 9.1 0.485
 Isoleucine 256 ± 51 241 ± 44 242 ± 30 0.693
 Leucine 180 ± 48 213 ± 36 202 ± 39 0.219
 Lysine 499 ± 47 545 ± 141 493 ± 109 0.500
 Methionine 66.9 ± 16.4 78.6 ± 20.5 65.6 ± 19.8 0.039
 Ornithine 140 ± 16 148 ± 41 139 ± 28 0.771
 Phenylalanine 81.4 ± 12.4 75.7 ± 9.6 69.2 ± 13.6 0.094
 Proline 485 ± 73b 561 ± 72a 618 ± 62a 0.001
 Serine 172 ± 26b 187 ± 26ab 204 ± 23a 0.035
 Threonine 348 ± 78 402 ± 84 388 ± 134 0.472
 Tryptophan 82.3 ± 10.3 73.8 ± 11.1 74.8 ± 13.6 0.234
 Tyrosine 129 ± 24c 161 ± 20b 188 ± 24a 0.001
 Valine 393 ± 69c 526 ± 60b 635 ± 84a 0.001
Amino acid metabolites, μmol/L
 Asymmetric dimethylarginine 1.85 ± 0.19 1.89 ± 0.18 1.94 ± 0.17 0.524
 Alpha-aminoadipic acid 49.5 ± 10.5 47.7 ± 13.3 40.1 ± 18.2 0.316
 Carnosine 17.4 ± 2.6 16.7 ± 3.8 15.8 ± 3.4 0.568
 Creatinine 70.3 ± 8.2 67.8 ± 8.1 67.4 ± 9.9 0.728
 Histamine 1.28 ± 1.17 1.01 ± 0.80 1.31 ± 0.94 0.806
 Kynurenine 0.99 ± 0.17 0.93 ± 0.12 1.00 ± 0.21 0.691
 Methionine sulfoxide 3.28 ± 0.78b 4.77 ± 1.24a 5.61 ± 1.44a 0.001
 Putrescine 1.10 ± 0.17 1.11 ± 0.24 1.17 ± 0.14 0.628
 Sarcosine 2.23 ± 0.34 2.41 ± 0.35 2.63 ± 0.56 0.140
 Symmetric dimethylarginine 0.85 ± 0.11 0.84 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.09 0.084
 Serotonin 0.39 ± 0.40 0.46 ± 0.38 0.47 ± 0.41 0.705
 Spermidine 0.83 ± 0.35 0.80 ± 0.37 0.68 ± 0.35 0.555
 Trans-4-hydroxyproline 115 ± 16 123 ± 14 122 ± 7 0.328
 Taurine 64.3 ± 14.9 74.7 ± 20.0 69.9 ± 16.2 0.418
  1. Values are means ± SDs for n = 10 pigs per group. Means without a common superscript letter differ, P < 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: CON control group; IM5 insect meal 5% group; IM10 insect meal 10% group