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Table 8 Effect of betaine supplementation on subsequent reproductive performance of sows during non-summer months (Exp. 2)c

From: Sow performance in response to natural betaine fed during lactation and post-weaning during summer and non-summer months

ItemParity 1 and 2Parity 3+SEMP-valuesd
Betaine in lactation diets, %
000.20.2000.20.2Parity groupBetaine lactationBetaine post- weaning
Betaine in post-weaning diets, %
00.200.200.200.2
Sows, n7773747681828381    
Days to estruse6.67a,b8.19a6.83a,b5.76b8.21a6.93a,b7.26a,b6.70a,b0.7520.4010.0770.473
Bred within 7 days:weaned0.7920.7400.8110.8030.6790.7800.7350.7650.0480.1720.3700.601
Bred within 14 days:weaned0.8310.7530.8380.8290.7780.8170.8550.7900.0440.9300.2900.369
Overall bred:weanedf0.9870.9180.9730.9211.0001.0000.9880.9630.0190.0050.2680.008
Returns:bred within 14 daysg0.1090.1090.0810.0950.1430.1190.2390.2190.0440.0080.2140.809
Farrowed:weanedg,h0.8700.8220.8650.8030.9630.9150.8310.8020.0390.1690.0150.089
Cull:weanedi0.1040.1530.1080.1710.0250.0610.1200.1480.0350.0690.0400.079
Total born12.5412.3713.5312.1914.4913.7714.0013.660.441< 0.0010.8680.040
Born alive12.1311.8512.5611.7213.5412.7613.0512.880.4120.0010.9540.075
Still born0.410.530.840.470.880.910.830.780.1260.0010.6200.448
Mummies0.2220.1320.1430.1580.3050.2140.3220.1380.0640.0730.5360.054
  1. a,bMeans with different superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05)
  2. cValues represent least squares means of n sows
  3. dThe statistical analysis tested for main effects of betaine supplementation during lactation and/or post-weaning, parity group and their interactions. The group of placement (1 to 28) was used as the random effect in the analysis of days to estrus, total born, born alive, still born, and mummies
  4. eThree way interaction (P = 0.09)
  5. fPost-weaning and parity group interaction (P = 0.079)
  6. gLactation and parity group interaction (P ≤ 0.05)
  7. hSows that were weaned and farrowed regardless of the day that were bred
  8. iLactation and parity group interaction (P = 0.108)