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Table 3 In vitro fermentation characteristics of brewers’ spent grain (BSG) and residues after hydrolysis using proteases varying with enzyme dosages

From: Feed nutritional value of brewers’ spent grain residue resulting from protease aided protein removal

Iteme Residue, enzyme dosed BSG SEM P < 
Low Med MedH High    Enz L Q Int R:BSG
VFA, mmol/L
 Alcalase 64.1a 60.1 55.0b 57.1 67.0 2.49 0.55 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01
 Everlase 58.1ab 59.5 62.3a 61.6 67.0    0.06 0.40   0.01
 Flavourzyme 55.8b 61.6 60.0ab 62.6 67.0    0.01 0.30   0.01
Acetate (A), %
 Alcalase 56.5b 57.1 57.6ab 57.2 56.4 1.07 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
 Everlase 57.7a 57.6 57.1b 57.4 56.4    0.09 0.21   0.01
 Flavourzyme 57.8a 57.9 58.5a 58.0 56.4    0.10 0.04   0.01
Propionate (P), %
 Alcalase 23.1a 21.6b 21.6b 21.7 21.9 0.49 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.36
 Everlase 22.1b 22.1a 22.2a 22.0 21.9    0.94 0.59   0.20
 Flavourzyme 21.6c 21.5b 21.1c 21.8 21.9    0.43 0.01   0.01
Butyrate, %
 Alcalase 2.18 2.21 2.19 2.20 2.14 0.043 0.10 0.59 0.73 0.87 0.05
 Everlase 2.20 2.19 2.15 2.18 2.14    0.36 0.47   0.13
 Flavourzyme 2.15 2.16 2.16 2.14 2.14    0.87 0.59   0.60
A:P
 Alcalase 2.46b 2.66 2.67ab 2.65 2.59 0.128 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.31
 Everlase 2.63ab 2.64 2.59b 2.62 2.59    0.34 0.48   0.16
 Flavourzyme 2.70a 2.71 2.79a 2.68 2.59    0.95 0.01   0.01
NH3-N, mmol/L
 Alcalase 24.1 24.1 23.3 24.1 22.6 1.75 0.51 0.75 0.51 0.85 0.09
 Everlase 24.1 23.9 24.4 24.1 22.6    0.85 0.93   0.05
 Flavourzyme 23.9 24.2 23.6 22.4 22.6    0.10 0.35   0.23
  1. VFA volatile fatty acid, BCFA branched chain fatty acid
  2. Enz, enzyme effects, L, Q, linear and quadratic effects of enzyme dose (enzyme:protein, w/w; 1:100, 5:100, 10:100, 15:100, respectively, for Low, Med, MedH and High); Int, interaction between enzyme and enzyme dosage; R:BSG, contrast between average of enzyme dosage and BSG
  3. a, b, cMeans with different letters in the same column and within a category are different (P < 0.05)
  4. dProtease dosage used in protein hydrolysis (% of BSG protein)