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Table 1 Experimental design of studies on faecal microbiota transplantation in pig production

From: Potential relevance of pig gut content transplantation for production and research

Refa Hypothesis/Aim Treatment No. of pigs/group Start age, d Duration, d Transplantation method Conclusions
1 Effect on gut bacterial community structure, gut barrier and growth performance Control (saline) 6 litters; 9–10 pigs/litter 1 27 1.5 mL daily, from d 1 to d 11. Orally The recipients’ resistance to disease was enhanced, diarrhea was reduced and weight gain was raised
Faeces from Jinhua adult pigs 6 litters; 9–10 pigs/litter 1.5 mL daily from d 1 to d 11. Orally
2 FMT regulates intestinal mucosal autophagy and anti-inflammatory ability Control (phosphate-buffered saline) 6 1 14 1.5 mL daily, from d 1 to d 11. Orally FMT triggered intestinal mucosal protective autophagy
Faeces from Jinhua adult pigs 6 1.5 mL daily from d 1 to d 11. Orally
3 Changes in the gut microbiota induced by FMT alter its metabolic function, which might regulate mucosal integrity and immune responses Control (PBS) 6 1 14 1.5 mL every second day, from d 1 to d 14. Orally FMT reduced susceptibility to LPS-induced destruction of epithelial integrity and severe inflammatory response
Control (PBS) (+ NaCl at slaughter) 6 1.5 mL every second day, from d 1 to d 14. Orally
Control (PBS) (+ LPS at slaughter) 6 1.5 mL every second day, from d 1 to d 14. Orally
Faeces from Jinhua adult pigs 6 1.5 mL every second day, from d 1 to d 14. Orally
Faeces from Jinhua adult pigs (+ LPS at slaughter) 6 1.5 mL every second day, from d 1 to d 14. Orally
4 Effects of early fecal microbiota transplantation on gut development in sucking piglets Control (saline) 6 3 56 10 mL daily from d 1 to d 3; 10 mL every second day from d 4 to d 15; 20 mL every 5 days from d 16 to d 46. Intragastrically FMT from the Yorkshire and Rongchang pigs to DLY piglets damaged the gut microbiota balance and thereby intestinal health
Faeces from 5 Tibetan pigs (12 weeks of age) 6 10 mL daily from d 1 to d 3; 10 mL every second day from d 4 to d 15; 20 mL every 5 days from d 16 to d 46. Intragastrically
Faeces from 5 Yorkshire pigs (12 weeks of age) 6 10 mL daily from d 1 to d 3; 10 mL every second day from d 4 to d 15; 20 mL every 5 days from d 16 to d 46. Intragastrically
Faeces from 5 Rongchang pigs (12 weeks of age) 6 10 mL daily from d 1 to d 3; 10 mL every second day from d 4 to d 15; 20 mL every 5 days from d 16 to d 46. Intragastrically
5 To identify and validate gut microbes associated with diarrhoea resistance Control (none) 3 1 post-weaning 11 None FMT reduced diarrhoea in recipients; FMT caused shifts in the microbiota of recipients towards that of donors
Control (saline) 3 2 mL every second day from d 10 to d 18. Orally
Faeces from Congjiang weaners (high dose) 3 2 mL every second day from d 10 to d 18. Orally
Faeces from Congjiang weaners (low dose) 3 2 mL every second day from d 10 to d 18. Orally
Oxytetracycline 3 2 mL at weaning. Intramuscular
6 The gastrointestinal microbiome could be strengthened or weakened by feeding maternal fecal microbiota or antibiotics Control (saline) 5 1 21 3 mL every day from d 1 to d 6. Orally FMT showed beneficial effects on GI-tract microbiota and the metabolic profiles of piglets on day 7, while less effect on day 21
Amoxicillin 3 3 mL every day from d 1 to d 6. Orally
Faeces from the dam 5 3 mL every day from d 1 to d 6. Orally
7 Whether FMT in sows and/or neonatal offspring with inocula from highly feed-efficient pigs could improve offspring feed efficiency Control (saline) 18/12 d 70 of gestation 185 None Reduced body weight, poorer absorptive capacity and intestinal health after FMT
Faeces from 4 finisher pigs with the lowest RFI to piglets at birth 18/12 8 mL at birth. Orally
Faeces from 4 finisher pigs with the lowest RFI to piglets at birth, 3, 7, and 28 d of age 18/12 8 mL at birth, 3, 7, and 28 days of age. Orally
Faeces from 4 finisher pigs with the lowest RFI to sows 18/12 200 mL d 70 and d 100 of gestation. Intragastrically
Faeces from 4 finisher pigs with the lowest RFI to sows, and piglets at birth 18/12 200 mL d 70 and d 100 of gestation. Intragastrically. 8 mL at birth to piglets. Orally
Faeces from 4 finisher pigs with the lowest RFI to sows, and piglets at birth, 3, 7, and 28 days of age 18/12 200 mL d 70 and d 100 of gestation. Intragastrically. 8 mL at birth, 3, 7, and 28 days of age. Orally
8 Microbiota from donors differing in composition can be established in recipient pigs Colon digesta from growers (18 weeks old) fed a Control diet 20 28 88 20 mL on d 4 and d 18 post-weaning. Orally Microbiota did not established in the recipients
Colon digesta from growers (18 weeks old) fed a Control diet added 170 ppm copper 20 20 mL on d 4 and d 18 post-weaning. Orally
Colon digesta from growers (18 weeks old) fed a Control diet added 40 ppm tylosin 20 20 mL on d 4 and d 18 post-weaning. Orally
Colon digesta from growers (18 weeks old) fed a Control diet added 1% benzoic acid 20 20 mL on d 4 and d 18 post-weaning. Orally
9 To assess the alleviation of epithelial injury in the Escherichia coli K88-infected piglets following FMT Control 6 1 21 None Epithelial injury was alleviated in the E. coli K88-infected piglets following FMT
Challenged E.coli K88 + PBS 6 100 mL K88 from d 15 to d 17+ 100 mL PBS on d 18 to d 20
Challenged E. coli K88 + faeces 6 100 mL K88 from d 15 to d 17+ 100 mL faeces on d 18 to d 20
10 FMT prior to co-infection with PRRSV and PCV-2 reduces clinical signs and pathology associated with PCVAD Control (saline) + (PRRSV+PCV-2d) 10 (in 1 pen) 25 51 5 mL every day from d 1 to d 7 post-weaning FMT decreases the severity of clinical signs following co-infection with PRRSV and PCV-2 by reducing the prevalence of PCVAD
Faeces from 2 sows (+PRRSV+PCV-2d) 10 (in 1 pen) 5 mL every day from d 1 to d 7 post-weaning
  1. a1: Hu et al. [47]; 2: Cheng et al. [48]; 3:Geng et al. [50]; 4: Diao et al. [49]; 5: Hu et al. [51]; 6: Lin et al. [88]; 7: McCormack et al. [52]; 8: Canibe et al. (unpublished); 9: Cheng et al. [48]; 10: Niederwerder et al. [72]