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Table 1 Effect of HCO3 concentration on in vitro sperm fertility. A) Monophasic IVF: performed in TALP medium containing different HCO3 concentrations (0 mmol/L, 5 mmol/L, 15 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L) for 18 h of co-culture at 38.5 °C. B) Biphasic IVF (Sperm pre-incubation + Monophasic IVF): sperm were pre-incubated in TALP for 60 min in 5 mmol/L, 15 mmol/L or 25 mmol/L and then IVF was performed in TALP medium with the same or higher HCO3 concentration for 18 h of co-culture at 38.5 °C

From: Manipulation of bicarbonate concentration in sperm capacitation media improves in vitro fertilisation output in porcine species

A
[HCO3], mmol/L
IVF
n Pen, % Mon, % SPZ/O SPZ/ZP Efficiency, %
0 216 0a 0.3 ± 0.1a 0a
5 204 21.6 ± 2.9b 61.4 ± 7.4a 1.7 ± 0.2a 2.8 ± 0.2b 13.2 ± 2.4b
15 206 79.6 ± 2.8c 32.9 ± 3.7b 4.0 ± 0.3b 4.9 ± 0.5c 26.2 ± 3.1c
25 280 97.5 ± 0.1d 8.8 ± 1.7c 6.6 ± 0.3c 8.8 ± 0.5d 8.6 ± 1.7b
B
[HCO3], mmol/L n Pen, % Mon, % SPZ/O SPZ/ZP Efficiency, %
Sperm pre-incubation IVF
5 15 171 46.8 ± 3.8a 36.2 ± 5.4ab 3.0 ± 0.2ab 3.4 ± 0.2a 17.0 ± 2.9a
5 25 172 54.1 ± 3.8a 21.5 ± 4.3a 4.4 ± 0.3c 4.1 ± 0.3abc 11.6 ± 2.4a
15 15 165 69.7 ± 3.6b 48.7 ± 4.7b 2.4 ± 0.2b 3.6 ± 0.2ab 33.9 ± 3.7b
15 25 164 76.8 ± 3.3bc 25.4 ± 3.9a 3.6 ± 0.2ac 4.5 ± 0.2bc 19.5 ± 3.1a
25 25 171 86.6 ± 2.6c 24.3 ± 3.5a 3.4 ± 0.2a 4.8 ± 0.3c 21.0 ± 3.1a
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Different superscripts (a-d) in the same column indicate significant differences (P < 0.05)
  2. Pen, % penetration percentage of total oocytes used, Mon, % monospermy percentage calculated from penetrated oocytes, SPZ/O number of spermatozoa penetrating each oocyte, SPZ/ZP number of sperm bound to ZP, Efficiency, % final number of putative zygotes (monospermic) in each group per 100 penetrated oocyte