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Table 2 Time-dependent effect of MNP-lectin conjugates on sperm motility characteristics

From: Nanotechnology-based approach for safer enrichment of semen with best spermatozoa

Other motion Incubation time, min P-values
parameters 0 (N=18) 30 (N=19) 90 (N=15) 120 (N=16)
VAP, μm/s 70 ± 2a 77.6 ± 2.1b 73.2 ± 3.1c 74.8 ± 1.7bc < 0.0001
VSL, μm/s 35.4 ± 1.1a 40.5 ± 0.8b 45.1 ± 0.7c 42.7 ± 1.3d < 0.0001
VCL, μm/s 154.5 ± 4.1a 164.7 ± 4.3b 150.3 ± 4.8a 160.4 ± 2.9b 0.001
ALH, μm 8.3 ± 0.1a 7.7 ± 0.1b 7.2 ± 0.3c 7.9 ± 0.1b < 0.0001
BCF, Hz 38.1 ± 0.4a 36.2 ± 0.5b 37.9 ± 0.9a 34.1 ± 0.6c < 0.0001
STR, % 51.1 ± 0.6a 54.2 ± 0.9b 63.1 ± 2.5c 58.1 ± 1.0d < 0.0001
LIN, % 24.3 ± 0.5a 26.9 ± 0.5b 33.1 ± 2.2c 28.2 ± 0.6b < 0.0001
  1. The table represents various sperm kinematic parameters, such as average path velocity (VAP), straight-line velocity (VSL), curve-linear velocity (VCL), head lateral amplitude (ALH), beat flagellum frequency (BCF), straightness (STR – VSL/VAP × 100), linearity (LIN – VSL/VCL × 100). Data are mean (±sem) of N observations of at least 4 independent replicates using pooled semen doses. Different letters on the same line denote significant differences (P<0.05)