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Table 7 Effect of treatment on energy balance, respiratory quotient, maintenance energy requirements, and nutrient depositionc

From: Lipopolysaccharide immune stimulation but not β-mannanase supplementation affects maintenance energy requirements in young weaned pigs

  Treatment Treatment P-value
Item CONd ENZe ISSf SEM
Day 16 BW, kg 14.37 14.19 13.77 0.26 0.313
Day 16 DMI, kg 0.51 0.51 0.46 0.03 0.348
Energy balance, kcal/kg BW0.60/kg DMI/d
 ME intake 771.3 755.9 751.1 37.7 0.924
 Heat productiong
  HPtotal 278.8b 274.9b 333.0a 14.9 0.040
  FHPtotal 287.8 276.0 324.3 17.1 0.178
  FHP 207.8 206.6 243.3 12.9 0.135
 Retained energyh
  As protein 197.5 173.6 191.0 18.3 0.627
  As lipid 291.4a 302.9a 227.7b 19.2 0.046
  Total 488.9 476.5 418.7 32.0 0.318
 kmg, % 87.07 86.44 83.01 1.34 0.130
 Estimated MEm 239.0b 239.5b 295.5a 15.3 0.045
Retained energy, % of ME intake
  As protein 25.68 23.15 24.99 1.27 0.354
  As lipid 37.77a 40.07a 29.81b 2.02 0.013
  Total 63.44a 63.22a 54.80b 2.18 0.033
Respiratory quotient
 Fed state 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.01 0.225
 Fasting state 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.01 0.381
Nutrient depositioni, g/d
 As protein 87.74 78.55 69.80 5.86 0.150
 As lipid 76.22a 79.43a 55.45b 6.21 0.047
ADG d 10–16, g/d 447.1a 404.8a 330.7b 21.3 0.010
  1. a,bWithin a row, treatment means without a common superscript differ, P < 0.05
  2. cn = 7 pigs per treatment (CON and ENZ) and 6 pigs per treatment (ISS)
  3. dControl treatment (CON) = pigs fed basal diet (0.0% β-mannanase) with saline injection
  4. eEnzyme treatment (ENZ) = pigs fed enzyme diet (0.056% β-mannanase) with saline injection
  5. fImmune system stimulation treatment (ISS) = pigs fed enzyme diet (0.056% β-mannanase) with LPS (Escherichia coli serotype O55:B5) injection
  6. gHeat production (HP) = (3.87 × O2 consumption (L) + 1.20 × CO2 production (L) – 1.43 × urinary N)/BW0.60 (kg) [22]; Total HP (HPtotal) = avg. HP over 22 h fed state, post- challenge; Total fasting HP (FHPtotal) = avg. HP over 12 h fasted state; Fasting HP (FHP) = avg. of 10 lowest HP values over the 12 h fasted state [27, 28]; HP10 = avg. HP over 10 h post-challenge (10:00 h – 20:00 h), fed state; HPlow = avg. of 10 lowest HP values over 10 h post-challenge (10:00 h – 20:00 h), fed state; Activity HP (AHP) = HP10 - HPlow; Thermic effect of feeding (TEF) = HP10 - AHP – FHP; Heat increment (HI) = AHP + TEF; ME efficiency for maintenance and growth (kmg) = (1 – HI) × 100 [25]; ME used for maintenance (MEm) = FHP × 100/kmg [25]
  7. hRetained energy (RE) = ME intake – total fed-state HP, pre-and post-challenge [29]; RE as protein (REp) = [PD (g) × 5.66 (kcal/g)]/ BW0.60/DMI [30]; RE as lipid (REl) = RE - REp [30]
  8. iProtein deposition = nitrogen retention (g) × 6.25; Lipid deposition = REf (kcal) / 9.49 (kcal/g) [30]