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Table 4 Antimicrobial peptides generated from the hydrolysis of animal proteins or synthesized by intestinal mucosal cells

From: Protein hydrolysates in animal nutrition: Industrial production, bioactive peptides, and functional significance

Source Amino acid sequence Gram-positive bacteria Gram-negative bacteria
Bovine meat Gly-Leu-Ser-Asp-Gly-Glu-Trp-Gln Bacillus cereus Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella typhimurium Escherichia coli
Gly-Phe-His-Ile No effect Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Phe-His-Gly No effect Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bovine collagen Peptides < 2 kDa (by collagenase)a Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli
Goat whey GWH (730 Da) and SEC-F3 (1,183 Da) (hydrolysis by Alcalase) Bacillus cereus Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella typhimurium Escherichia coli
Red blood cells Various peptides (24-h hydrolysis by fugal proteases) Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Hen egg white lysozyme Asn-Thr-Asp-Gly-Ser-Thr-Asp-Tyr-Gly-Ile-Leu-Gln-Ile-Asn-Ser-Arg (hydrolysis by papain and trypsin)b Leuconostoc-mesenteroides Escherichia coli
Trout by-products Various peptides (20–30% of hydrolysis) (hydrolysis by trout pepsin) Renibacterium-salmoninarum Flavobacterium psychrophilum
Small intestine (Paneth cells) α-Defensins, lysozyme C, angiogenin-4 and cryptdin-related sequence peptides Gram-positive bacteria broad-spectrum) Gram-negative bacteria (broad-spectrum)
Phospholipid-sn-2 esterase and C-type lectin Gram-positive bacteria (broad-spectrum) No effect
  1. Adapted from Lima et al. [39], Osman et al. [40], and Wald et al. [41]
  2. aminimal inhibition concentrations = 0.6 – 5 mg/mL
  3. bminimal inhibition concentrations = 0.36 – 0.44 μg/mL