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Table 2 Effect of feeding a control lower-energy diet (CON, 1.24 Mcal/kg DM; high-straw) during the whole dry period (~50 d), a higher-energy (1.54 Mcal/kg DM) diet without (OVE) rumen-protected methionine during the last 21 d before calving, or OVE plus rumen-protected methionine (Smartamine M; OVE + SM; Adisseo NA) from -21 d before calving through the first 30 d postpartum on biomarker concentrations of metabolism, liver health, and oxidative status in Holstein cows

From: Supplemental Smartamine M in higher-energy diets during the prepartal period improves hepatic biomarkers of health and oxidative status in Holstein cows

  Diet1   P-values3
Items CON OVE OVE + SM SE2 D T D*T
Metabolism
 Cholesterol, mmol/L 3.24 3.16 3.26 0.11 0.76 <.0001 0.71
 Creatinine, μmol/L 97.60 98.88 97.68 1.53 0.77 <.0001 0.17
 GH, ng/mL 5.75 4.79 6.95 1.08 0.23 <.0001 0.82
 IGF-1, ng/mL 56.65 60.03 59.98 6.64 0.91 <.0001 0.69
 Leptin, ng/mL 4.44 5.42 4.40 1.62 0.84 <.0001 0.29
 Urea, mmol/L 5.20 5.05 5.05 0.18 0.77 <.0001 0.30
Liver health
 Albumin, g/L 35.41 35.54 36.32 0.41 0.24 0.0002 0.05
 Bilirubin , μmol/L 2.29a 3.38b 2.57ab 0.41 0.10 <.0001 0.57
 Ceruloplasmin, μmol/L 2.77ab 2.91b 2.61a 0.09 0.006 <.0001 0.51
 GGT, U/L 22.96a 25.21ab 26.85b 1.17 0.07 <.0001 0.008
 GOT, U/L 84.76 90.30 81.71 5.61 0.48 <.0001 0.04
 Haptoglobin, g/L 0.42 0.46 0.41 0.06 0.76 0.003 0.86
 IL-6, pg/mL 530.63 586.37 412.76 98.56 0.37 0.001 0.67
 SAA, μg/mL 35.55a 54.00b 34.77a 7.79 0.10 0.0005 0.58
Oxidative status
 β-carotene, mg/100 mL 0.20 0.19 0.23 0.02 0.14 0.04 0.06
 Liver GSH, mmol/L 953a 1281b 1693c 120 0.0002 0.05 0.14
 NO2, μmol/L 6.03 6.66 6.80 0.45 0.44 0.01 0.09
 NO3, μmol/L 18.65a 16.90b 16.77b 0.40 0.002 <.0001 0.08
 NOx, μmol/L 24.61 23.54 23.67 0.56 0.31 <.0001 0.18
 ORAC, TE mol/L 12,731 12,359 12,739 198 0.25 <.0001 0.66
 Paraoxonase, U/mL 77.96a 68.41b 66.74b 2.68 0.01 <.0001 0.02
 Retinol, μg/100 mL 46.39 41.79 43.42 3.10 0.44 0.0009 0.08
 ROM, mg of H2O2/100 mL 14.01 12.99 13.44 0.49 0.31 <.0001 0.79
 Tocopherol, μg/mL 3.67 3.68 3.16 0.44 0.46 <.0001 0.31
  1. 1Prepartum dietary treatment: CON = control energy, OVE = moderate energy, OVE + SM = OVE supplemented with rumen-protected methionine (Smartamine M, Adisseo Inc.)
  2. 2SE = greatest standard error of the mean
  3. 3D = diet, T = time, D*T = diet by time interaction
  4. a, b, cSignificant difference among dietary groups (P ≤ 0.05). Differen reported for biomarkers with a tendency (P ≤ 0.10) or a significan (P ≤ 0.05) Diet effect