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Table 1 Effect of selected agricultural byproducts containing anacardic acid and other phenolics on dry matter (DM) digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters

From: Use of Asian selected agricultural byproducts to modulate rumen microbes and fermentation

Byproduct, origin Description Phenolics, % in weight Reference Test by Dosed at DM digestibility, % Total VFA, mmol/dL Inhibition, % Reference
  Anacardic acid Caldanol Caldol    Methanea Ammonia
Cashew shell, India Heatedb - 71.4 14.4 [21] Batch culture 0.5 mg/mL - ns 9.2 - [21]
Raw 57.7 8.2 19.9 ibid.   ibid - ns 56.9 - ibid.
Raw ibid. ibid. ibid. ibid. RUSITEC 0.2 mg/mL ns 70.1 16.5 ibid.
Raw ibid. ibid. ibid. ibid. Feeding (dry cow) 0.32% of DMI ns ns 19.3–38.3 ns [22]
Raw ibid. ibid. ibid. ibid. Feeding (milking cow) ibid. ns ns 12.7 ns Shinkai et al. unpublished
Raw ibid. ibid. ibid. ibid. Feeding (sheep) ibid. ns ns 61.4 43.0 Suzuki et al. unpublished
Cashew shell, Tanzania Raw - - - [25] Batch culture 0.17 mg/mL - ns 17.8 - [25]
Cashew shell, Brazil Heated - 62.9 13.4 [26] Feeding (milking cow) 0.11% of DMI ns - 8.0 - [26]
Raw 64.9 1.2 13.3 [29]        
Cashew shell, Brazil Heated - 73.3 19.4 [28] Feeding (milking cow) 0.036% of DMI ns - - - [28]
Raw 49.3 30.5 20.2 [27]        
Ginkgo fruit, Japan Cultivar A 85.0 2.3 12.7 Oh et al. Batch culture 3.2 mg/mL - ns 85.7 42.0 Oh et al. unpublished
Cultivar B 86.8 2.3 10.9 unpublished ibid. 4.5 mg/mL - ns 65.9 46.0 ibid.
      RUSITEC 3.2 mg/mL ns ns 47.3 53.7 ibid.
Ginkgo leaf, Korea Unspecified - - -   Batch 1.0 mg/mLc ns ns 46.7 - [30]
  1. -, No data available
  2. ns, Not significantly changed
  3. ↑, Significantly increased
  4. aCalculated on basis of CH4 ml for in vitro test and of CH4 g/kg DMI for in vivo test, respectively
  5. bHeat was used in deshelling process
  6. cg of extract/mL (not calculable as original leaf)