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Table 2 Mean (±SD) of sperm characteristics after different centrifugation treatments in normal (N) and poor (P) quality ejaculates

From: Single and double layer centrifugation improve the quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm from poor quality ejaculates

Items SLC DLC CC NC
  N P N P N P N P
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Normal morphology, % 90.4 ± 5.3* 91.2 ± 4.4* 89.6 ± 3.2* 91.3 ± 3.7* 85.9 ± 5.4* 63.7 ± 6.4§ 87.9 ± 4.6* 66.2 ± 7.1§
Non-sperm cells, % 0.05 ± 0.04* 0.07 ± 0.04* 0.07 ± 0.05* 0.05 ± 0.03* 0.06 ± 0.03* 2.8 ± 1.1§ 0.03 ± 0.02* 3.2 ± 1.3§
TM, % 91 ± 6* 91 ± 3* 91 ± 5* 92 ± 3* 85 ± 6§ 86 ± 6§ 84 ± 7§ 83 ± 4§
PM, % 74 ± 10* 79 ± 4* 77 ± 3* 81 ± 1* 64 ± 6§ 65 ± 5§ 66 ± 3§ 66 ± 2§
VAP, μm/s 153.2 ± 10.9* 153.5 ± 10.4* 150.1 ± 10* 147.6 ± 7.5* 152.7 ± 13.9* 153.3 ± 16.9* 156.8 ± 20.4* 140.5 ± 11.7§
VSL, μm/s 127.2 ± 9.4* 132.3 ± 11.7* 129.2 ± 8.6* 128.4 ± 7.7* 126.1 ± 9.9* 126.7 ± 16.5* 131.8 ± 14.3* 119 ± 8.9§
VCL, μm/s 256.6 ± 35.9*§ 263.4 ± 18.5§ 252.4 ± 25.8* 255.9 ± 14.1* 261.6 ± 25.7* 271.1 ± 19.3§ 264.7 ± 40.8§ 243.8 ± 17.6*
ALH, μm 8.9 ± 1.7* 8.7 ± 0.7* 8.6 ± 1.2* 8.8 ± 0.5* 9.3 ± 0.8§ 9.6 ± 0.3§ 8.8 ± 1.1* 8.7 ± 0.3*
BCF, Hz 44.3 ± 3.3* 45.2 ± 3* 45.2 ± 1.9* 44.7 ± 1.4* 43.8 ± 1.9* 42.7 ± 2.6* 44.6 ± 1.6* 42.9 ± 1.7*
STR, % 83 ± 3* 86 ± 2* 86 ± 4* 87 ± 2* 83 ± 2* 82 ± 3* 84 ± 2* 85 ± 2*
LIN, % 51 ± 3* 53 ± 2* 53 ± 3* 53 ± 2* 51 ± 2* 50 ± 2* 52 ± 1.5* 51 ± 2*
PI-, PSA-, % 86.9 ± 5.4* 85.1 ± 8.3* 83.7 ± 7.3* 84.5 ± 3* 75.5 ± 10.4§ 72.3 ± 4.7§ 82.4 ± 7.27* 71.3 ± 10.3§
PI-, PSA+, % 0.5 ± 0.2* 0.4 ± 0.2* 0.3 ± 0.2* 0.4 ± 0.3* 0.6 ± 0.2* 0.7 ± 0.3* 0.5 ± 0.3* 0.7 ± 0.4*
PI+, PSA-, % 10.3 ± 0.9* 12 ± 1.1* 13.8 ± 1.2* 12.6 ± 0.9* 20.8 ± 1.7§ 24 ± 1.4§ 14.9 ± 1.1* 24.9 ± 1.3§
PI+, PSA+, % 2.3 ± 0.4* 2.5 ± 0.3* 2.2 ± 0.3* 2.5 ± 0.2* 3.1 ± 0.4* 3 ± 0.3* 2.2 ± 0.3* 3.1 ± 0.4*
h-MMP, % 53.6 ± 4.2* 52.9 ± 3.8* 54.2 ± 4.6* 53.1 ± 4.1* 52.4 ± 3.7* 51.9 ± 3.2* 45.8 ± 3.2§ 41.8 ± 6.4§
  1. TM Total motility, PM progressive motility, VAP average path velocity, VSL straight line velocity, VCL curvilinear velocity, ALH amplitude of lateral head displacement, BCF beat cross frequency, STR straightness, LIN linearity, PI-, PSA-membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, PI-, PSA+ membrane integrity and acrosome damage, PI+, PSA- membrane damage and acrosome integrity, PI+, PSA+ membrane damage and acrosome damage, h-MMP spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential
  2. In the same row, values with different symbols in superscript (*/§) differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05)