modulating in the gut. ① L. reuteri can produce a variety of antimicrobial substances (AMS) such as lactic acid, and reuterin [28-30]. ② L. reuteri has the capacity to colonize, and can adhere to mucin and intestinal epithelial cells [17,21,22] . ③ L. reuteri has been shown to stimulate or suppress innate immune responses by affected the production of cytokines in macrophages (M), monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). The modulation of dendritic cells by L. reuteri has been shown to be mediated through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and promote development of regulatory T cells producing high amounts of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) [59,60]. ④ L. reuteri has been reported affected the colonic microbial communities and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration . Please see text for details and references.