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Table 1 Effects of essential oils and aromatic plants on the performance of swine and poultry

From: Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review

Feed additive Dose,mg/kg Major components Treatment effects (%, difference to control) References
Species ADG ADFI FCR
Plant extract 150 5% Carvacrol (Origanum spp.), 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin Weaned pigs −5 −6 1 Manzanilla et al. [6]
300 −2 - −2
Herbal extracts 7,500 Cinnamon, thyme, oregano and a carrier Weaned pigs −10 −17 8 Namkung et al. [7]
EO blend 300 Fenugreek (40%), clove (12.5%), cinnamon (7.5%) and carrier (40%) Weaned pigs 7 5 −2 Cho, et al. [8]
Phytobiotics 1,000 Anis oil, citrus oil, oregano oil, and natural flavors Nursery pigs 4 1 −2 Kommera et al. [9]
Plant extract 300 5% (wt/wt) Carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin Weaned pigs 33 26 −4 Manzanilla et al. [10]
Plant extract 300 5% (wt/wt) Carvacrol (Origanum spp.), 3% cinnamaldehyde (Cinnamonum spp.), and 2% capsicum oleoresin (Capsicum annum) Weaned pigs 33 26 −4 Nofrarías, et al. [11]
Fennel 100 Fennel and caraway oil were obtained by steam distillation from fennel or caraway seeds Weaned pigs 6 3 −3 Schone et al. [12]
Caraway 100 0 −1 −2
EO blend 100 Buckwheat, thyme, curcuma, black pepper and ginger Weaned pigs 0 -3 −4 Yan et al. [13]
EO blend 1,000 Cinnamomum verum, Origanum vulgare spp., Syzygium aromaticum, Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus Weaned pigs 2 - −2 Huang et al. [14]
EO blend 300 4.44 g of anise oil, 1.30 g of clove oil, and 2.0 g of cinnamon oil/kg of additive Weaned pigs 10 5 −4 Maenner et al. [15]
EO blend 300 27.8 g of anise (Pimpinella anisum) oil, 12.5 g of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil, and 46.0 g of peppermint (M. arvensis) oil/kg of additive 7 4 −3
EO blend 50 Thymol, cinnamaldehyde Weaned pigs 11 7 −3 Li et al. [16]
100 22 19 −2
150 22 15 −5
EO blend 1,000 Oregano, which contained 60% active substance (Cymene, Terpinene, Carvacrol) and 40% carrier (dextrin) Weaned pigs 2 2 −1 Zhang et al. [17]
Chinese medicinal herbs 1,000 20% of each of Dioscoreaceae batatas, A. macrocephala, G. uralensis and Platycodon grandiflorum Weaned pigs 16 - −14 Huang et al. [18]
3,000 13 - −11
EO blend 100 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) Weaned pigs 12 1 −10 Li et al. [19]
EO blend 100 Weaned pigs 10 −1 −10 Zeng et al. [20]
Oregano 500 Finisher pigs −10 −8 3 Janz et al. [21]
EO blend 100 Thyme, rosemary, oreganum extracts and kaolin Finisher pig 4 −1 −5 Yan et al. [22]
100 4 2 −2
EO blend 25 Blend of EO containing 2.9% active ingredients including thymol Broiler 5 4 −1 Jang et al. [23]
50 3 5 1
EO blend 100 Syzigium aromathicum (clove); Cinnamon ceylanensis; Cinnamon camphocamphora (cinnamon) Broiler −1   2 Isabel and Santos [24]
Oregano EO 250 Carvacrol 84.0%; thymol 1.8% Broiler 3 4 0 Basmacioglu et al. [25]
500 3 −3 −8
Oregano EO 300 77.3% carvacrol, 9.6% thymol Broiler −7 −4 2 Kirkpinar et al. [26]
Garlic EO 300 2-propenyl thioacetonitril 43.2%, trisulfide methyl 2-propenyl 23.4%, disulfide di-2-propenyl 20.9% −3 −4 0
Oregano EO + garlic EO 150/150 Carvacrol 38.7%, thymol 4.8%, 2-propenyl thioacetonitril 21.6%, trisulfide methyl 2-propenyl 11.7%, disulfide di-2-propenyl 10.4% −4 −5 −2
EO blend 100 Cinnamaldehyde and thymol Broiler 5 1 −3 Amerah et al. [27]
100 2 2 0
Thyme EO 1,000 Thymol 44.1%, p-cymene 32.0%, terpineol 9.6%, linalol 4.6% Broiler −4 −3 0 Cross et al. [28]
Oregano EO 300 Carvacrol 86.7%; thymol 3.3%; p-cymene 1.3%; γ-terpinene 1.3% Broiler 3 2 −1 Roofchaee et al. [29]
600 5 0 −5
1,200 3 −2 −4
EO blend 125 Oregano, anis and citrus peel-active component (carvacrol) Broiler 5 −2 −6 Hong et al. [30]
EO blend 150 Carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon Broiler 7 - −3 Alali et al. [31]
250 8 - −5
500 15 - −7
EO blend 100 Basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, thyme Broiler 7 0 −6 Khattak et al. [32]
200 7 0 −7
300 6 −2 −6
400 6 0 −5
500 7 −2 −8
Ginger EO 75 Zingiberene 27.2%; β-Sesquiphellandrene 13.7; Sabinene 13.4%; Ar-curcumene 10.7%; β-Bisabolene 9.9%; Broiler 7 6 0 Habibi et al. [33]
150 5 6 0
Rosewood EO 150 Linalool 84.8%; Minor oxigenated sesquiterpenes 3.4%; α-terpineol 2.9%; geraniol 1.0% Broiler 2 1 −1 Aguilar et al. [34]
300 2 2 0
450 1 −1 −2
600 1 2 0
Thymol 30 Thymol Turkey 0 - −1 Ginnenas et al. [35]
EO blend 30 10% thymol, 0.5% eugenol, 0.05% piperine 7 - −8