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Figure 3 | Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Figure 3

From: Emerging evidence of the physiological role of hypoxia in mammary development and lactation

Figure 3

Schematic diagram of proposed effects of hypoxia on the mammary gland. Hypoxia stabilizes the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which stimulates: i) glucose uptake through enhancing the expression of facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), ii) angiogenesis through enhancing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), iii) anaerobic glycolysis through up-regulating the expression of several key glycolytic genes, including hexokinases 1 and 2 (HKs), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), and iv) mammary development, differentiation and lactation through regulation of Notch, Wnt and STAT5 signaling pathways.

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