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Table 6 Villus height and concentrations of volatile fatty acids in digesta of pigs fed experimental diets (d 28)

From: Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health

Items FM-WPC1 FM-AA2 WPC-AA3 AA4 SEM P value
n 8 8 8 8   
Villus height, μm 376.8 477.8 505.4 472.8 42.2 0.208
Cecum digesta       
Acetate, mmol/L 66.04A 94.63B 65.24A 90.86AB 10.74 0.054
Propionate, mmol/L 40.94 50.15 39.25 47.51 8.37 NS5
Isobutyrate, mmol/L 0.54 0.98 0.40 0.83 0.22 NS
Butyrate, mmol/L 18.16 22.30 14.41 25.63 4.45 NS
Isovalerate, mmol/L 0.41a 0.82b 0.30a 0.58ab 0.12 0.032
Valerate, mmol/L 2.99 2.70 2.22 4.38 0.67 NS
Total, mmol/L 129.06 171.57 121.79 169.78 21.78 NS
Acetate, % of total 53.21 56.15 54.45 52.55 3.40 NS
Propionate, % of total 29.05 28.67 32.27 28.81 3.51 NS
Isobutyrate, % of total 0.31 0.61 0.27 0.45 0.13 NS
Butyrate, % of total 13.95 12.38 11.03 15.35 1.81 NS
Isovalerate, % of total 0.24 0.55 0.22 0.32 0.10 NS
Valerate, % of total 3.24 1.65 1.77 2.53 0.73 NS
Colon digesta       
Acetate, mmol/L 92.90 110.52 93.78 117.08 16.81 NS
Propionate, mmol/L 50.58 54.17 52.10 51.78 10.32 NS
Isobutyrate, mmol/L 1.76 1.18 1.69 1.81 0.36 NS
Butyrate, mmol/L 22.67 25.16 20.98 28.60 5.43 NS
Isovalerate, mmol/L 1.99 1.93 1.11 1.44 0.44 NS
Valerate, mmol/L 5.34 3.80 3.70 4.00 1.20 NS
Total, mmol/L 175.22 196.75 173.34 204.68 31.82 NS
Acetate, % of total 54.64 57.20 53.56 57.23 2.51 NS
Propionate, % of total 26.45 26.82 31.14 25.35 2.88 NS
Isobutyrate, % of total 0.77 0.64 0.94 0.88 0.17 NS
Butyrate, % of total 13.36 12.30 11.71 13.90 1.68 NS
Isovalerate, % of total 0.85AB 1.05B 0.59A 0.69AB 0.18 0.057
Valerate, % of total 3.95 2.00 2.07 1.95 0.73 NS
  1. 1FM-WPC: a control diet with fish meal and whey protein concentrate.
  2. 2FM-AA: a diet with fish meal and amino acids replacing whey protein concentrate.
  3. 3WPC-AA: a diet with whey protein concentrate and amino acids replacing fish meal.
  4. 4AA: a diet with amino acids replacing both fish meal and whey protein concentrate.
  5. 5NS: not significant (P > 0.10).
  6. a-bMeans lacking a common superscript are differ within a row (P < 0.05).
  7. A-BMeans lacking a common superscript tend to differ within a row (0.05 ≤ P < 0.1).