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Table 4 Plasma mearurements of pigs fed experimental diets

From: Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health

Items FM-WPC1 FM-AA2 WPC-AA3 AA4 SEM P value
n 8 8 8 8   
Phase 1, d 7       
Growth hormone, ng/mL 9.205 5.277 7.232 8.225 2.170 NS5
Insulin, μg/L 0.026A 0.034AB 0.028AB 0.058B 0.012 0.064
Immunoglobulin G, ug/mL 0.325ab 0.290bc 0.362a 0.275c 0.028 0.024
Immunoglobulin M, ug/mL 0.058 0.060 0.066 0.060 0.006 NS
TNF-α, pg/mL 47.0 47.3 35.0 47.3 8.9 NS
Phase 2, d 28       
Growth hormone, ng/mL 4.163 4.140 6.251 7.298 1.686 NS
Insulin, μg/L 0.026 0.049 0.034 0.024 0.011 NS
  1. 1FM-WPC: a control diet with fish meal and whey protein concentrate.
  2. 2FM-AA: a diet with fish meal and amino acids replacing whey protein concentrate.
  3. 3WPC-AA: a diet with whey protein concentrate and amino acids replacing fish meal.
  4. 4AA: a diet with amino acids replacing both fish meal and whey protein concentrate.
  5. 5NS: not significant (P > 0.10).
  6. a-bMeans lacking a common superscript are differ within a row (P < 0.05).
  7. A-BMeans lacking a common superscript tend to differ within a row (0.05 ≤ P < 0.1).