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Table 3 Fatty acid profiles of hamburgers made with perirenal fat from steers fed a high forage diet containing sunflower-seed (SS) and 15 or 30% wheat dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS)

From: Improving beef hamburger quality and fatty acid profiles through dietary manipulation and exploitation of fat depot heterogeneity

Items Dietary treatments s.e.m P-value
  Control SS DDGS-15 DDGS-30
Variable n = 16 n = 16 n = 16 n = 16   
∑ FA, mg/g 192c 186d 198b 202a 1 0.03
FA of endogenous or dietary origin       
∑ SFA 56.4a 55.8b 55.6b 54.4c 0.3 0.03
 14:0 3.44a 2.90b 2.63c 2.90b 0.11 <0.001
 16:0 27.0a 24.0b 23.4c 24.4b 0.1 <0.001
 18:0 25.6c 28.5a 29.2a 26.7b 0.7 0.001
c-MUFA 28.6ab 27.0b 26.9b 29.3a 0.6 0.02
c 9-14:1 0.38a 0.31b 0.27b 0.35a 0.03 0.05
c 9-16:1 1.68a 1.38b 1.27b 1.48ab 0.08 0.01
c 9-18:1 23.9ab 22.5c 22.7bc 24.9a 0.5 0.003
n-3 0.57a 0.45b 0.46b 0.41c 0.02 <0.001
 18:3n-3 0.46a 0.38b 0.37bc 0.35c 0.01 <0.001
 22:5n-3 0.11a 0.08bc 0.09b 0.07c 0.01 <0.001
n-6 2.07d 2.16c 2.34b 2.50a 0.02 <0.001
 18:2n-6 1.76d 1.88c 2.02b 2.20a 0.04 <0.001
 20:4n-6 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.01 0.29
n-6:n-3 3.63d 4.76c 5.12b 6.03a 0.03 0.04
∑ PUFA 2.64b 2.62b 2.79ab 2.92a 0.08 0.01
∑ PUFA:SFA 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.001 0.25
FA of microbial origin       
∑ BCFA 2.91a 2.42b 2.34b 2.14c 0.05 <0.001
iso-17:0 0.46a 0.41b 0.39b 0.36c 0.01 <0.001
anteiso- 17:0 0.75a 0.60b 0.60b 0.55c 0.01 <0.001
t-18:1 5.20c 8.11a 8.34a 7.48b 0.27 <0.001
t 11-18:1 2.49c 3.69a 3.83a 3.39b 0.12 <0.001
t 13-t 14 0.83c 1.33a 1.35a 1.19b 0.05 <0.001
∑ CLA 0.69b 0.79a 0.82a 0.80a 0.03 0.001
t 7,c 9-18:2 0.03b 0.03b 0.04a 0.04a 0.00 <0.001
c 9,t 11-18:2 0.53b 0.61a 0.63a 0.62a 0.02 0.0005
t 11,c 13-18:2 0.03a 0.03a 0.03a 0.02c 0.00 <0.001
∑ AD 0.53c 0.57b 0.57b 0.60a 0.01 0.02
t 8,c 12-18:2 0.09c 0.12b 0.12b 0.14a 0.01 <0.001
t 11,c 15-18:2 0.19a 0.18a 0.16b 0.14c 0.01 <0.001
∑ CLNA 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.00 0.10
c 9,t 11,c 15-18:3 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.00 0.20
  1. a,b,c,dMeans with different superscripts for a particular fatty acid profile are significantly different (P <0.05); s.e.m, standard error of mean; c, cis; t, trans; ∑ FA, total fatty acids in mg/g of tissue; ∑ PUFA, sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids = ∑ n-6 + ∑ n-3; ∑ n-6 = sum of 18:2n-6, 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6; ∑ n-3 sum of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3; ∑CLNA, sum of conjugated linolenic acid = c 9,t 11,t 15-, c 9,t 11,c 15-; ∑ AD, atypical dienes = sum of t 11,t 15-, c 9,t 13-/t 8,c 12-, t 8,c 13-, c 9,t 12-/c 16-18:1, t 9,c 12-, t 11,c 15-, c 9,c 15-, c 12,c 15-18:2; ∑ CLA, conjugated linoleic acid = sum of t 12,t 14-, t 11,t 13-, t 10,t 12-, t 9,t 11-, t 8,t 10-, t 7,t 9- t 6,t 8-, c 9,t 11-, t 7,c 9-, t 11,c 13-, t 12,c 14-, c 11,t 13-, t 10,c 12-, t 8,c 10-, t 9,c 11-; ∑ t-MUFA, sum of trans-monounsaturated fatty acids = t 9-16:1, t 6,t 7,t 8-, t 9-, t 10-, t 11-, t 12-, t 13/t 14-, t 15-, t 16-18:1; ∑ c-MUFA = sum of c 9-14:1, c 7-16:1, c 9-16:1, c 11-16:1, c 9-17:1, c 9-18:1, c 11-18:1, c 12-18:1, c 13-18:1, c 14-18:1, c 15-18:1, c 9-20:1, c 11-20:1; ∑ BCFA, branched chain fatty acids = sum of iso- 15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0, anteiso- 17:0, iso- 18:0; ∑ SFA = sum of 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 19:0, 20:0.