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Table 2 Effects of species, diet, and feed deprivation time (FDT) on blood hormone, metabolite, behavior, and muscle pH in sheep and goats

From: Preslaughter diet management in sheep and goats: effects on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcass

  Species   Diet   FDT   
Response Goat Sheep P-value HD CD P-value 12-hrs 24-hrs P-value SE
n 16 16   16 16   16 16   
Blood hormone           
  Plasma cortisol, ng/mL 54.76 80.11 0.2027 62.79 72.08 0.6452 64.84 70.02 07911 13.612
Blood metabolite1           
  Plasma glucose, mg/dL 130.39 128.54 0.8888 122.60 136.24 0.2159 132.37 126.47 0.5888 7.551
  PUN, mg/dL 17.24 18.30 0.6820 17.24 18.30 0.6468 17.16 18.38 0.5944 1.603
  Plasma CK activity, IU 571.74b 863.94a 0.0392 732.97 702.72 0.8265 747.15 688.54 0.6798 95.210
  Plasma NEFA, mEq/L 589.78b 1056.05a 0.0054 953.56 692.27 0.1105 729.05 916.79 0.2108 105.01
Behavioral observations2           
  Standing 3.49a 3.24b 0.0008 3.46a 3.26b 0.0084     
  Moving 0.37a 0.28b 0.0440 0.19b 0.46a 0.0001     
  Agonistic 0.13a 0.01b 0.0001 0.03b 0.11a 0.0024     
  Lying 0.00b 0.48a 0.0001 0.32a 0.16b 0.0043     
  Drink 0.00 0.003 0.3176 0.002 0.00 0.3176     
Dressing percent,% 43.02 42.84 0.7380 42.59 43.28 0.2049 42.79 43.07 0.5959 0.3752
Muscle pH3           
  Initial 6.96 6.96 0.6000 6.97 6.91 0.2740 6.92 6.97 0.3688 0.039
  Ultimate 6.02a 5.84b 0.0002 5.98a 5.87b 0.0141 5.92 5.93 0.8678 0.029
  1. HD = hay diet; CD = concentrate diet.
  2. 1PUN = plasma urea nitrogen; CK = creatine kinase; NEFA = non-esterified fatty acids.
  3. 2Observed or 90 min before staring the slaughtering process.
  4. 3Inital = pH of longissimus muscle at immediately after skinning; Ultimate = pH of longissimus muscle at 24 h postmortem.
  5. a,bWithin a row, least squares means that do not have a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).