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Table 2 Suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli §

From: Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli

Causal bacterium Tissue/Organ Suggested candidate gene/pathway or major conclusion
S. Typhimurium * HP, NCF2, PGD[3]
  intestine (jejunum, ileum and colon) TLR-2, NOD-1, NOD-2, PBD-2, NF-κB1, caspase-1 Regional differences in gene expression profiles and inflammatory response to S. typhimurium infection along the porcine intestinal gut exist [64]
  macrophage Enhanced uptake of S. typhimurium in macrophages is associated with ERK1/2 activation [63]
  intestinal epithelial cell PBD-1, PBD-2[61, 67, 68]
  * CCT7[69]
  in vivo gut loop model NOD-2, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR5, CCR9, CCRL1[65]
  mesenteric lymph node T helper 1, innate/inflammatory, and antigen-processing pathways are induced; apoptosis and antigen presentation/dendritic cell function pathways are down-regulated; NF-kappaB suppression in antigen-presenting cells may be the mechanism for S. Typhimurium evasion [62]
  mesenteric lymph node CD47, CXCL10, SCARB2, INDO, IRF1, SOCS1, STAT1, SLC11A1[47]
S. Choleraesuis * 14 different chromosomal regions in the porcine genome are found to be significantly associated with susceptibility [24]
  mesenteric lymph node Th1, innate immune/inflammation response, apoptosis pathway, and strong NF-kappaB-dependent response are induced [35]
  mesenteric lymph node ARPC2, CCT7, HSPH1, LCP1, PTMA, SDCBP, VCP, INDO, SOCS1, STAT1, SLC11A1[48]
  lung TGM1, TGM3, GBP1, GBP2, C1S, C1R, MHC2TA, PSMB8, TAP1, TAP2
   Apoptotic pathways, Th1 immune response, and interferon gamma (IFNG) signal are observed [2, 66]
E. coli * HEG1, ITGB5[70]; MUC4[71, 72]; FUT1[73, 74]; B3GNT5[75, 76]; MUC20[77]; MUC13[18]; TFRC[75, 78]; B3GALT3, B4GALT4[75]
  duodenum Genes related to the Glycan Biosynthesis and Metabolism are observed [79]
  Jejunal mucosa THO complex 4 [80]
A. pleuropneumoniae lung MMP-9, MMP-12[81]
  liver liver plays an important role in initiating and orchestrating the innate immune response to A. pleuropneumoniae infection [82]
  * TF[83]
  peripheral blood leukocytes OAS1, CD97, S100A8, TGM3[84]
  lung, liver, tracheobronchial lymph node 357, 713, and 130 differentially expressed genes are observed in lung, liver, and tracheobronchial lymph node, respectively (For more details see [85])
H. parasuis porcine alveolar macrophage S100A4, S100A6, coronin1a, etc. Cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway are significantly effected [86]
  * FUT1[87]
  lung Candidate genes and pathways for disease resistance or susceptibility phenotypes are identified (For more details see [88])
  * CAV1[89]
  spleen S100A8, S100A9, RETN, etc. [4, 49]
L. intracellularis intestinal tissue IGFBP-3[90]
K. pneumoniae N/A N/A
Y. pseudotuberculosis N/A N/A
Y. enterocolitica N/A N/A
C. coli N/A N/A
  1. §: all the data was obtained from PubMed (
  2. * : Genetic analysis including bioinformatics SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ) prediction analysis, SNP and association analysis with traits, GWAS (Genome Wide Association Studies), and gene function analysis.
  3. N/A: not available.