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Table 1 Serum metabolites and hepatic triglyceride concentrations of cows treated with or without dietary carnitine 

From: Changes of the liver metabolome following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide injection in Holstein cows supplemented with dietary carnitine

Metabolites CAR group SEM CON group SEM P-value
Before LPS After LPS Before LPS After LPS LPS CAR Interaction
BHB, μmol/L 0.57 0.79 0.06 0.40 0.88 0.05  < 0.01 0.60 0.05
FFAs, μmol/L 0.14 0.22 0.02 0.12 0.22 0.02  < 0.01 0.91 0.10
Serum TG, μmol/L 0.13 0.11 0.006 0.12 0.12 0.004  < 0.01 1.00 0.06
Hepatic TG, nmol/mg 8.19 5.23 0.62 8.52 5.79 0.70  < 0.01 0.62 NI1
  1. 1NI Not included in the mixed model due to the non-significant interaction P-value (> 0.10). CAR Carnitine-treated, CON Control, BHB Beta-hydroxybutyrate, FFAs Free fatty acids, TG triglycerides
  2. ‘Before LPS’ refers to lactation d 100, while ‘after LPS’ refers to lactation d 112