Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of original research articles focusing on the chemoprotective effect of SeNPs on various mammalian species

From: Toxicological effects of nanoselenium in animals

Compare study Animal species Injury Size, nm Modification Dose Exposed time, d Effects Ref.
Na2SeO3 Mice Inducet atherosclerosis 23, 40, 86   50 μg Se/kg BW 24 ↓ Atherosclerotic lesions; ↑ oxidative stress; ↓ GPx; ↑ hyperlipidemia in liver (observed changes were significantly higher in sodium selenite group; moreover SeNPs at the size of 40 nm showed highest negative impact on animal health) [44]
Na2SeO3 Mice Alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury 60 Chitosan 1.58–5 mg/kg BW 30 LD50 sodim selenite: 8.8 mg/kg BW; LD50 SeNPs 73.2 mg/kg BW; − body weight, viscera indexes of heart, liver, spleen and kidney (not in liver); SeNPs showed gastroprotective properties; ↑ SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in gastric mucosa in SeNPs treated groups [72]
  Mice Oxidative stress 50 Chitosan 10.5 mg/kg 60 Acute fetal test showed SeNPs-C/C was safer than selenite, with a median lethal dose (LD50) of approximately 4-fold to 11-fold of that of selenite [50]
Na2SeO3 Mice 0, 2, and 8 Gy gamma irradiation. 20–50   0.1 mg/kg 14 Selenium nanoparticles as an emerging potent antioxidant agent can protect against irradiation induced nephropathy [73]
  Mice oxidative stress 200 Melatonin modified SeNPs 10 mg/kg 10 MTse protects against hepatocellular damage than a similar dose of melatonin (10 mg/kg) or selenium (0.1 mg/kg) alone [74]
  Mice Gentamyin induced nephrptoxicity 30–100   2 mg/kg BW 10 SeNPs are potent antioxidant candidate against GM-induced oxidative kidney toxicity and hematoxicity in mice. [75]
  Mice Eimeriosis-induced inflammation 5–50   0.5 mg/kg 5 SeNPs were able to regulate the gene expression of mucin 2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor α in the jejunum of mice infected with E. papillata [76]
  Mice Hepatocytes exposed to Gamma radiation 50–200   0.10 mg/kg 14 Selenium nanoparticles bear a more potent antioxidant effect in comparison with selenium selenite and can effectively protect the liver cell against Gamma radiation at a dose of 8.00 Gy [77]
  Mice Cellular damage in thyriod by chromium 3–20   0.5 mg/kg 5 Se nanoparticles have a protective effect on K2Cr2O7-induced thyroid damage, as a result of correcting the free T3 and T4 levels and GSH, catalase, SOD, and MDA compared to the K2Cr2O7-treated group. [78]
  Rats Deltamethrin induced effects on sperm characteristics 100–200   0.5 mg/kg BW 60 ↑ Sperm count, motility and viability; ↑ body weight; − testosterone; ↑ GPx, TAC; ↓ MDA [79]
Na2SeO3 Rats Glycerol-induced acute kidney injury 129.3 Green synthesis with lycopene 0.5 mg/kg 14 ↑ Renal biochemical profile, GPx, ↓ MDA; ↑ expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α genes; ↓ caspase-3, Bax, and cyt-c [80]
  Rats Chloride-induced hepatorenal toxicity 100   0.4 mg/kg BW 21 − Creatinine levels; ↓ MDA; ↑ GSH, SOD in renal tissue; ↑ expression Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein); ↓ caspase-3 activity [81]
Na2SeO3 Rats Paracetamole induced toxicity 40   0.5 and 1 mg/kg 30 − ALP, AST, ALT, LDH, GPx in Se and SeNPs groups; protective effect of Se and SeNPs against paracetamol [82]
  Rats Tert butyl hydroperoxid induced oxidative stress 42   0.3 mg/kg BW 35 ↓ SOD in liver in SeNPs and t-BHP treated rats compared to ctrl; ↑ GPx, CAT in liver in SeNPs groups; − liver enzymes among treated groups compared to ctrl [83]
  Rats Streptozocin induced diabetes 20–80   0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg BW 28 ↓ Blood sugar, albumine in blood; ↓ creatinin, urea [84]
Na2SeO3 Rats Bisphenol-induced reproductive toxicity 20–60   2 and 3 mg/kg BW 70 ↑ Antioxidant status; ↓ MDA; ↑ restoration of testicular tissue; ↓ expression of mRNA of COX-2; ↑ expression of mRNA of ER-2; ↓ DNA fragmentation compared to ctrl and sodium selenite group [85]
  Rats Induced bone toxicity 40–90   0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/d 28 ↑ Bone density and biochemical markers of bone resorption [86]
  Rats Neurobehavioral abnormalities and oxidative stress caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine   Glycine 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg BW 30 ↑ Rat’s behaviour and number of TH+ neurons; ↓ MDA; ↑ SOD and GSH-PX [87]
  Rats Oxidative injury 50 Chitosan 280 mg/kg 30 ↑ Testicular function; ↑ testosterone levels, ameliorating testicular tissue; ↓markers of oxidative stress in male rats [88]
  Rats Renal injury 68–122   0.1 mg/kg 14 ↑ Kidney relative weight; ↑ serum urea, creatinine, Kim-1, and renal malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, cytochrome c, Bax, and caspase-3 levels [89]
  Rats ACR-induced injury 25–51 Chitosan 0.2 mg/kg/d 60 Ch-SeNPs (0.2 mg/kg/d) displayed more protection against ACR-induced damages comparing to Na2SeO3 [90]
  Rats Reproductive toxicity    0.5 mg/kg 60 SeNPs improved DLM-induced negative effects on sperm characteristics, testosterone, and antioxidant biomarkers, as well as behavioral and histopathological alterations. The SeNPs treated group showed improved semen parameters, antioxidant status, and sexual performance [79]
  Rats Streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetes 10–80   0.1 mg/kg 28 SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage inthe testes of STZ-diabetic rats [91]
  Rats Diabetic nephropathy during pregnancy    2.5 mg/kg 42 SeNPs significantly reduced the rate of urination, accelerated the start of gestation, and increased the percentage of successful pregnancy in females with DM [92]
  Rats Carbon tetrachloride-induced toxic damage of liver 15–27   0.1 mg/kg 14 A high dose of SeNPsto rats with toxic liver damage decreases the concentration of lipid peroxidation products in the blood and normalizes the level of liver enzymes at a time of the damage of the urinary system [93]
  Rats Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity 200–300   2.5 mg/kg 21 SeNPs pretreatment significantly improved the level of AST, urea, creatinine, MDA, LDH, and GSH in the CCl4 -injected rats towards the control levels [94]
  Rats Cypermethrin-induced neurotoxicity 100   2.5 mg/kg 21 SeNPs increased levels of GABA and glutathione; on the other hand, it significantly prevented the rise in the levels of MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β [95]
  Rats Nephropathy    5 mg/kg 30 Reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in tissue samples were correctly modulated in the pups from N.P.s treated diabetic mothers. [96]
  Rats Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neuro- and nephrotoxicity 3–5, 10–20   0.5 mg/ kg 56 SeNPs significantly ↓ CdCl2-induced elevation of serum kidney and brain damage biomarkers; lipid peroxidation; the percent of DNA fragmentation and nearly normalized the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and↑ activity and expression of antioxidant biomarkers [97]
  Rats Brain oxidative damage    0.1 mg/kg 45 Enhanced brain antioxidant status and lower AChE activity and oxidative-inflammatory stress biomarkers. A significant downregulation of caspase 3 and upregulation of parvalbumin and Nrf2 protein expressions was observed in treated groups [98]
  Rats MEL-induced renal function impairments 3.3–17 Green synthesis 0.5 mg/kg 28 MEL-induced nephropathic alterations represented by a significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renal TNFα, oxidative stress-related indices [99]
  Rabbits Thermal stress 50–400 Lactic bacteria assisted synthesis 20 and 50 mg/kg 56 25 and 50 mg of nano-Se/kg diet,ncreasing the level of only BIO from a 25 to a 50 mg/kg diet gave more improvement inthe studied parameter [100]
  Chicken Heat stress 100–500   0.5 mL/L 38 Weight gain, performance index, behavioral indices, MDA,SOD,immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, serum total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and serum creatinine concentrations increased (P < 0.01) [101]
  Chicken Oxidative stress by enrofloxacin 100 Biogenic 0.6 mg/kg 42 Activity of cellular, humoral immune response and enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants was significantly decreases as a result of EFX treatment [102]
  Chicken Oxidative stress 10–45   0.3 mg/kg 42 Highest serum IgG and IgM concentrations were recorded for non-stressed birds received nano-selenium and organic selenium [103]
  Chicken Cr((VI)) induced hepatic injury    0.5 mg/kg 35 Histopathological examination suggested that the liver cells of the Cr(VI) poisoning group were more severely injured than the nano-Se addition group. RT-qPCR results showed that the relative expression of ACACA gene in the Cr(VI) poisoning group was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the CPT1A gene’s expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) [104]
Na2SeO3 Sows Induced heat stress (35 °C) 30–70   0.5 mg Se/kg diet 25 ↓ Greatly mRNA level of Hsp70; ↑ mRNA level of Hsp27 [105]
  Sows Induced heat stress (35 °C) 30–70   0.5 mg Se/kg diet 25 ↑ Superoxide dismutase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the serum and liver; ↓ malondialdehyde in the serum and liver [106]