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Table 11 Effects of supplementing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to the diets of sows on the concentrations of metabolites in the plasma of sows and piglets and in milk during lactation

From: Dietary supplementation with branched-chain amino acids enhances milk production by lactating sows and the growth of suckling piglets

Variable Control 1.535% BCAA 3.07% BCAA Pooled SEM P-value
d 3 d 15 d 29 d 3 d 15 d 29 d 3 d 15 d 29 Treatment Day T × D1
Sow’s plasma
 Ammonia, μmol/L 60 62 62 61 64 65 64 67 68 6.4 0.372 0.665 1.00
 Urea, mmol/L 2.88 2.97 3.07 2.74 2.83 2.94 2.59 2.68 2.80 0.28 0.224 0.487 1.00
 Glucose, mmol/L 5.38 5.41 5.53 5.47 5.51 5.55 5.59 5.64 5.69 0.12 0.018 0.261 0.99
 Lactate, mmol/L 1.27 1.49 1.69 1.28 1.52 1.76 1.25 147 1.66 0.21 0.979 < 0.001 1.00
 Pyruvate, μmol/L 135 148 161 136 146 166 134 148 170 14 0.963 < 0.001 0.987
Piglet’s plasma
 Ammonia, μmol/L 64 65 65 66 65 67 66 68 69 2.6 0.173 0.607 1.00
 Urea, mmol/L 2.37 2.57 2.79 2.36 2.45 2.55 2.33 2.42 2.51 0.25 0.533 0.200 0.964
 Glucose, mmol/L 5.32 5.34 5.44 5.41 5.64 5.73 5.65 5.84 5.84 0.13 < 0.001 0.015 0.723
 Lactate, mmol/L 2.37 2.38 2.4 2.44 2.44 2.45 2.52 2.49 2.51 0.15 0.367 0.987 1.00
 Pyruvate, μmol/L 154 155 156 157 157 157 158 159 160 10 0.807 0.976 1.00
Sow’s milk
 Ammonia, mmol/L 1.59 1.64 1.66 1.65 1.71 1.72 1.70 1.78 1.81 0.17 0.383 0.677 1.00
 Urea, mmol/L 7.23 4.79 5.26 7.04 4.65 5.09 6.92 4.67 5.14 0.58 0.832 < 0.001 0.997
 Glucose, mmol/L 0.54 0.589 0.592 0.577 0.62 0.629 0.574 0.633 0.64 0.06 0.384 0.163 1.00
 Lactate, mmol/L 0.142 0.17 0.195 0.136 0.167 0.192 0.147 0.175 0.199 0.03 0.909 0.026 1.00
 Pyruvate, μmol/L 65 67 73 67 65 74 62 69 79 9.4 0.937 0.111 0.932
  1. Values are means with pooled SEM, n = 10 sows/treatment group for plasma and milk, n = 20 piglets/treatment group
  2. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA
  3. 1Treatment (T), Day (D), and Treatment × Day (T × D) interaction