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Table 4 Nitrogen balance of pigs in response to low-protein diets

From: Different dietary starch patterns in low-protein diets: effect on nitrogen efficiency, nutrient metabolism, and intestinal flora in growing pigs

Items W LP C + W LP C LP P + W LP P LP SEM1 P-value
Average daily feed intake, g/d 1040 1067 1070 1035 1048 35 0.941
Dietary N intake, g/d 21.64 22.36 22.78 21.66 22.22 1.41 0.947
Urinary N excretion, g/d 2.05a 1.37b 2.17a 1.61ab 1.91a 0.13 0.018
Fecal N excretion, g/d 4.26 4.25 4.39 4.73 4.50 0.25 0.743
Total N excretion, g/d 6.31a 5.62b 6.56a 6.34a 6.41a 0.20 0.046
Retention of N, g/d 15.33 16.74 16.22 15.32 15.81 0.78 0.342
Total N excretion/intake of N, % 29.17 25.13 28.80 29.26 28.84 1.75 0.390
Urinary N excretion/N excretion, % 32.48a 24.37b 33.08a 25.39ab 29.80ab 2.12 0.050
Fecal N excretion/N excretion, % 67.52b 75.63a 66.92b 74.61ab 70.20ab 2.42 0.050
Apparent biological value2, % 88.20b 92.44a 88.20b 90.49ab 89.22ab 1.25 0.043
Protein efficiency of utilization3, % 70.79 74.76 71.16 70.86 71.30 3.42 0.269
  1. a-c Means in the same row with different superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05)
  2. 1n = 6
  3. 2 (Intake of nitrogen - fecal nitrogen - urinary nitrogen) / (intake of nitrogen - fecal nitrogen)
  4. 3 (Intake of nitrogen - fecal nitrogen - urinary nitrogen) / intake of nitrogen
  5. W LP waxy corn starch low-protein diet, C + W LP corn starch + waxy corn starch low-protein diet, C LP corn starch low-protein diet, P + W LP pea starch + waxy corn starch low-protein diet, P LP pea starch low-protein diet. Values are means of 6 observations per treatment