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Table 9 Intestinal morphometric indices of broilers

From: Suitability of Hermetia illucens larvae meal and fat in broiler diets: effects on animal performance, apparent ileal digestibility, gut histology, and microbial metabolites

 Items Protein × Fat SE P-value Protein (LSMean) SE P-value Fat SE P-value
S + 0 L S + 50 L S + 100 L L + 0 L L + 50 L L + 100 L S L 0 L 50 L 100 L
Jejunum
 Villus height, μm 1114 1179 1008 994 1214 1157 71.06 0.114 1100 1122 45.78 0.678 1054v 1197u 1082uv 52.95 0.065
 Villus width, μm 188 193 172 197 222 204 14.43 0.641 184 207 9.149 0.033 192 207 188 10.65 0.288
 Villus area, mm2 0.19 0.19 0.15B 0.16Y 0.24Z 0.22A,YZ 0.015 0.015 0.18 0.21 0.001 0.018 0.17 0.21 0.18 0.011 0.035
 Crypt depth, μm 135 125 137 120 133 137 7.952 0.314 132 130 4.795 0.701 127 129 137 5.713 0.388
 Villus height/crypt depth 8.57 9.85 7.68 8.53 9.56 8.54 0.808 0.721 8.70 8.88 0.495 0.769 8.55uv 9.70u 8.11v 0.585 0.093
 Goblet cells villus, n/200 μm 19.1 15.8 15.5 16.0 15.6 15.3 1.319 0.393 16.8 15.6 0.808 0.238 17.5 15.7 15.4 0.956 0.184
 Mucosa, μm 1356 1395 1243 1220 1471 1345 84.68 0.292 1331 1345 47.52 0.832 1288 1433 1294 58.62 0.139
 Submucosa, μm 33.9 33.0 34.8 29.8 34.4 34.7 1.956 0.302 33.9 33.0 1.929 0.537 32 34 35 1.414 0.294
 Tunica muscularis circular layer, μm 136 136 138 137 134 134 9.637 0.971 137 135 6.150 0.787 137 135 136 7.142 0.984
Ileum
 Villus height, μm 523 556 492 566 513 564 33.64 0.189 524 548 20.91 0.369 545 535 528 24.72 0.877
 Villus width, μm 155 153 165 174y 157 140z 8.434 0.034 157 157 4.869 0.947 164 155 152 5.964 0.351
 Villus area, mm2 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.006 0.379 0.07 0.08 0.003 0.363 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.004 0.541
 Crypt depth, μm 119 143 134 144 134 143 7.144 0.0721 132 140 4.125 0.159 132 138 138 5.051 0.562
 Villus height/crypt depth 4.56 3.89 3.72 3.97 3.90 3.97 0.245 0.184 4.05 3.94 0.156 0.567 4.26 3.89 3.84 0.183 0.148
 Goblet cells villus, n/200 μm 30 28 26 27 30 28 3.511 0.442 28 28 2.893 0.760 28 29 27 3.059 0.675
 Mucosa, μm 676 725 629 722 671 704 39.17 0.215 677 699 23.64 0.475 699 698 667 28.33 0.635
 Submucosa, μm 44.7 48.3 38.8 41.5 47.6 43.4 3.115 0.423 44.0 44.2 1.902 0.923 43.1uv 47.9u 41.1v 2.267 0.072
 Tunica muscularis circular layer, μm 277 270 239 227 278 264 24.08 0.238 262 256 14.97 0.770 252 274 252 17.70 0.541
  1. S, soybean meal; L; 15% of SBM crude protein substituted with HI larvae meal CP; S + 0 L, SBM + 0 HI larvae fat; S + 50 L, SBM + 50% HI larvae fat; S + 100 L, SBM+ 100% HI larvae fat; L + 0 L, HI larvae meal+ 0 HI larvae fat; L + 50 L, HI larvae meal+ 50% HI larvae fat; L + 100 L, HI larvae meal+ 100% HI larvae fat
  2. A,B Protein sources at the same HI larvae fat inclusion level differ if having different superscripts (P < 0.05)
  3. Y,Z HI larvae fat level within protein sources not sharing a common superscript differ (P < 0.05)
  4. y,z HI larvae fat level within HI larvae feeding not sharing a common superscript differ by trend (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10)
  5. u,v indicate differences by trend (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10) for the main effect of fat source
  6. 1post hoc test Tukey P > 0.10
  7. SE Standard error