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Table 6 Biogenic amines and ammonia in caecal digesta of broilers

From: Suitability of Hermetia illucens larvae meal and fat in broiler diets: effects on animal performance, apparent ileal digestibility, gut histology, and microbial metabolites

 Items Protein × Fat SE P-value Protein (LSMean) SE P-value Fat (LSMean) SE P-value
S + 0 L S + 50 L S + 100 L L + 0 L L + 50 L L + 100 L S L 0 L 50 L 100 L
Biogenic amines, mg/kg fresh matter
 Agmatine 244 293 274 222 214 213 26.18 0.237 270 216 22.51 < 0.001 233 254 243 23.48 0.460
 Ethanolamine 6.00 9.93 4.51 10.1 9.50 10.7 1.715 0.121 6.81 10.1 1.114 0.017 8.04 9.71 7.61 1.287 0.387
 Methylamine 7.51 7.45 7.06 6.51 6.43 5.41 0.821 0.895 7.34 6.12 0.522 0.065 7.01 6.94 6.24 0.611 0.550
 Putrescine 1.40 1.30 1.68 1.13 0.31 0.73 0.463 0.670 1.46 0.72 0.282 0.056 1.27 0.80 1.20 0.336 0.539
 Cadaverine 4.17 5.69 3.82 4.86 3.57 3.70 0.796 0.107 4.56 4.04 0.590 0.343 4.52 4.63 3.76 0.648 0.365
 Histamine 1.16 1.19 1.05 1.14 1.06 1.07 0.063 0.476 1.14 1.09 0.038 0.357 1.14 1.28 1.06 0.046 0.345
 Tyramine 1.12 1.09 3.11 1.10 1.83 2.21 1.321 0.825 1.77 1.71 0.763 0.958 1.11 1.46 2.66 0.934 0.479
 Spermidine 220 238 234 185 187 179 15.11 0.674 231 183 11.83 < 0.001 202 212 206 12.73 0.689
 Spermine 13.7 11.6 11.0 9.53 10.5 8.53 0.777 0.166 12.1 9.51 0.448 < 0.001 11.6u 11.0uv 9.75v 0.549 0.067
Ammonia, mmol/kg fresh matter 23.2 24.0 22.6 20.2 21.3 19.1 1.140 0.916 23.3 20.2 0.853 < 0.001 21.7 22.6 20.9 0.933 0.181
  1. S, soybean meal; L; 15% of SBM crude protein substituted with HI larvae meal CP; S + 0 L, SBM + 0 HI larvae fat; S + 50 L, SBM + 50% HI larvae fat; S + 100 L, SBM+ 100% HI larvae fat; L + 0 L, HI larvae meal+ 0 HI larvae fat; L + 50 L, HI larvae meal+ 50% HI larvae fat; L + 100 L, HI larvae meal+ 100% HI larvae fat
  2. u,v indicate differences by trend (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10) for the main effect of fat source
  3. SE Standard error