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Table 3 Summary of physical methods for mycotoxins detoxificationa.

From: Invited review: Remediation strategies for mycotoxin control in feed

Methods Measures and reagents Detoxification efficiency Reference
Alkaline treatment Ammonia, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and sodium carbonate etc. Removed 95% of AFB1 in various cereals by ammoniation and hydroxide salts treatments. [106,107,108,109,110,111]
Reduced DON by 83.9-100% in different feedstuffs through sodium carbonate and hydroxide salts treatments.  
Ozone treatment Ozone, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, sodium and calcium hypochlorite etc. Reduced 92-95%, 91% and 78% of AFBs in corn, cottonseed and peanut meal respectively by ozone.
DON can be reduced 70-90% in corn and 20-80% in wheat by ozone.
The degradation of ZEN in corn can reach 90.7% through the ozone treatment with 100 mg/L ozone for 180 min.
[112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119]
  1. aAFB1 Aflatoxin B1, DON deoxynivalenol, ZEN zearalenone, FB1 fumonisin B1