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Table 2 Summary of adsorbents with mycotoxins mitigation effectsa

From: Invited review: Remediation strategies for mycotoxin control in feed

Adsorbent Mycotoxins Binding efficiency Reference
Zeolite AFB1 Decreased AFB1 residue in duck meat by 65% significantly and numerically decreased AFB1 residue in liver and egg. [64]
Bentonite clay AFB1 Decreased liver AFB1 residue by 41-87% when broilers fed AFB1 in diet. [65]
Sodium bentonite AFB1 Decreased liver AFB1 residue by 62.5% when broilers fed AFB1 in diet. [66]
Modified maifanite ZEN Decreased ZEN residue in liver and muscle by 54.96% and 42.41% respectively at the dose of 1% when pig fed 1.11 mg/kg AFB1 in diet. [67]
Bentonite or montmorillonite AFB1, ZEN Decreased rumen concentration of AFB1 and ZEN, decreased AFM1 in milk and ZEN in feces. [68]
Organo-clay composites AFB1 Decreased AFB1 concentrations in liver, kidney and plasma significantly in chickens. [69]
Tri-octahedral bentonite DON, ZEN Adsorbed more than 90% of ZEN and FB1 while the adsorption dose up to 0.20%, w/v. [70]
Pillared montmorillonite DON Adsorbed 14.7-23.4% and 21.8-27.4% of DON at at pH 2.0 and pH 6.8. [71]
Nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether modified montmorillonites AFB1, ZEN The adsorption capacities of modified montmorillonites to AFB1 and ZEN increased up to 2.78 and 8.54 mg/g respectively from 0.51 and 0.00 mg/g by the raw montmorillonite. [72]
Hydrated sodium calcium alumino silicate AFB1, FB1 Adsorbed AFB1and FB1 in an aqueous solution, and the adsorption ratio ranged from 95.3% to 99.1% and 84.7% to 92.4%, respectively. [73]
Modified Hydrated sodium calcium alumino silicate DON Reduced the toxicity of DON in weaning piglets. [16]
Esterified glucomannan AFs, ZEN, DON Adsorbed 95%, 80% and 12% of aflatoxin, ZEN and DON. [73, 74]
Inactivated yeast cell wall and low Yeast fermenting volatile organic compound AFs, DON Decreased AFs and DON synthesis by 82% and 93% respectively. [75]
Distillers' wet grain, distillers' dried grains and distillers' dried grain with solubles DON, ZEN Adsorbed 48.9% and 67.9% of DON and ZEN (1 ppm each) using 5 g/L of micronized (20 mkm) yeast mass at 37 °C for 1h. [76]
Yeast cell wall extract ZEN Adsorbed 40% of the total ZEN content in the intestines in monogastric animals. [77, 78]
Activated charcoal AFB1, ZEN Reduced the toxicity of AFB1 on broilers and decreased the absorption rate of ZEN in small intestine from 32% to 5% when adding 2%. [79, 80]
Cholestyramine ZEN Decreased the absorption rate of ZEN in small intestine from 32% to 16%. [80]
Magnetic carbon nanocomposites AFB1 Adsorbed nearly 90% of AFB1 within 180 min at pH 7.0. [81]
Cross-lined chitosan polymers AFB1, ZEN, FB1, DON Adsorbed 73% AFB1, 94% ZEN and 99% FB1, but the adsorption ratio of DON less than 30%. [82]
Polyvinylpyrrolidone ZEN Adsorbed 2.1 mg/g of ZEN. [83]
Lactobacillus casei AFB1 Reduced the absorption of aflatoxin in the intestinal tract significantly. [84]
Lactobacillus plantarum F22 AFB1 Adsorbed 56.8% of AFB1. [85]
Lactobacillus plantarum B7 FB1 Adsorbed 52.9% of FB1. [86]
Lactobacillus pentosus X8 FB1 Adsorbed 58% of FB1. [86]
  1. aAFs Aflatoxins, AFB1 Aflatoxin B1, DON deoxynivalenol, ZEN: zearalenone; FB1: fumonisin B1