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Table 1 Summary of physical methods for mycotoxins decontaminationa

From: Invited review: Remediation strategies for mycotoxin control in feed

Methods Commonly used measures and reagents Decontamination efficiency References
Sorting and separation Sieving, aspiration, gravity separation, photoelectric separation, image processing Removed at least 51%, 63%, 93% of AFs, trichothecenes and fumonisins from the shelled white maize. [27]
Washing and solvent extraction Washing, solvent extraction (methanol, ethanol, hexane, acetonitrile, isopropanol and aqueous acetone etc.) Removed aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ZEN and fumonisins by 51-72%, 64-69%, 2-61% and 73-74% from the grains through floating and washing with water. [25, 27, 29]
Heating High temperature, high voltage Decomposited 78-88% of AFB1 in rice by cooking with pressure (0.10 MPa) at 160 °C for 20 min.
Destroyed 90% of DON or ZEN in barely power at 220 °C in 11 or 85min.
Reduced 80% FB1 while cooking rice at 100 °C for 10 min.
[30,31,32]
Irradiation X-rays, γ-rays and electron beam,
ultraviolet rays, infrared and microwave
Reduced 22.0-90.7% of AFB1 by irradiation.
Decomposited 17.2-100% of DON by irradiation.
Decontaminated 25.0-86.0% and 60.0-100% of ZEN by γ-rays and ultraviolet rays.
FB1 was inactivated by 63.5-100%, 58.1% and 93.3% by γ-rays, electron beam and microwave in feedstuffs.
[33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41]
  1. aAFs Aflatoxins, AFB1 Aflatoxin B1, DON deoxynivalenol, ZEN zearalenone, FB1 fumonisin B1