|Methods||Commonly used measures and reagents||Decontamination efficiency||References|
|Sorting and separation||Sieving, aspiration, gravity separation, photoelectric separation, image processing||Removed at least 51%, 63%, 93% of AFs, trichothecenes and fumonisins from the shelled white maize.|||
|Washing and solvent extraction||Washing, solvent extraction (methanol, ethanol, hexane, acetonitrile, isopropanol and aqueous acetone etc.)||Removed aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ZEN and fumonisins by 51-72%, 64-69%, 2-61% and 73-74% from the grains through floating and washing with water.||[25, 27, 29]|
|Heating||High temperature, high voltage||
Decomposited 78-88% of AFB1 in rice by cooking with pressure (0.10 MPa) at 160 °C for 20 min.|
Destroyed 90% of DON or ZEN in barely power at 220 °C in 11 or 85min.
Reduced 80% FB1 while cooking rice at 100 °C for 10 min.
X-rays, γ-rays and electron beam,|
ultraviolet rays, infrared and microwave
Reduced 22.0-90.7% of AFB1 by irradiation.|
Decomposited 17.2-100% of DON by irradiation.
Decontaminated 25.0-86.0% and 60.0-100% of ZEN by γ-rays and ultraviolet rays.
FB1 was inactivated by 63.5-100%, 58.1% and 93.3% by γ-rays, electron beam and microwave in feedstuffs.