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Table 7 The effect of CAL on in vitro ruminal FA composition (Exp. 1)

From: Dietary Coleus amboinicus Lour. decreases ruminal methanogenesis and biohydrogenation, and improves meat quality and fatty acid composition in longissimus thoracis muscle of lambs

Fatty acid, % of total FA CON CAL, % DM SEM P-value
10 15 20 Diet L
Saturated FA
 C10:0 0.26 0.31 0.30 0.28 0.02 0.84 0.77
 C12:0 1.33 1.30 1.62 1.42 0.07 0.28 0.29
 C14:0 1.53 1.51 1.51 1.47 0.04 0.94 0.56
 C15:0 1.14 1.13 1.10 1.09 0.03 0.91 0.49
 C16:0 21.2 21.3 21.7 20.9 0.20 0.48 0.89
 C17:0 0.76 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.02 0.78 0.39
 C18:0 41.0a 36.7b 36.5b 33.8b 0.77 < 0.01 < 0.01
 C20:0 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.06 0.01 0.63 0.54
 C21:0 0.20 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.02 0.95 0.77
 C22:0 0.13 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.01 0.46 0.13
 C23:0 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.15 0.01 0.82 0.43
 C24:0 0.52 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.02 0.17 0.04
Monounsaturated FA
 C14:1 0.50 0.48 0.37 0.38 0.03 0.12 0.04
 C15:1 0.52 0.62 0.55 0.60 0.03 0.69 0.57
 C16:1 0.57 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.06 0.16 0.11
 C17:1 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.24 0.02 0.90 0.47
 C18:1 trans-10 1.01a 0.80ab 0.65b 0.57b 0.06 0.05 < 0.01
 C18:1 trans-11 (VA) 2.40a 1.84b 1.86b 1.67b 0.08 < 0.01 < 0.01
 C18:1 cis-9 10.9b 12.9a 13.8a 13.7a 0.37 0.02 < 0.01
 C18:1 cis-11 1.14b 1.26ab 1.33a 1.31a 0.03 0.03 < 0.01
 C18:1 cis-12 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.01 0.68 0.37
 C18:1 cis-13 0.20 0.14 0.09 0.14 0.02 0.11 0.09
 C18:1 cis-14 0.33 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.02 0.85 0.42
 C20:1 trans 0.95a 0.89ab 0.87ab 0.81b 0.02 0.05 < 0.01
 C24:1 0.15b 0.16b 0.27a 0.28a 0.02 < 0.01 0.03
Polyunsaturated FA
 C18:2 cis-12 trans-10 0.23b 0.30a 0.23b 0.32a 0.01 < 0.01 0.04
 C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 (RA) 0.09 0.12 0.13 0.09 0.01 0.45 0.99
 C18:2 cis-9 cis-12 (LA) 10.5b 12.6a 12.3a 13.0a 0.35 0.04 0.02
 C18:3 cis-6 cis-9 cis-12 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.01 0.43 0.84
 C18:3 cis-9cis-12cis-15 (LNA) 1.25b 1.79ab 1.59ab 4.10a 0.35 0.01 < 0.01
 C20:2 0.32 0.31 0.32 0.28 0.03 0.96 0.72
 C22:2 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.01 0.65 0.75
∑ SFA 68.3a 64.1b 64.4b 60.7c 0.79 < 0.01 < 0.01
∑ UFA 31.7a 35.9b 35.6b 39.2c 0.79 < 0.01 < 0.01
∑ MUFA 19.0 20.6 20.8 21.2 0.38 0.15 0.04
∑ PUFA 12.6c 15.3b 14.8bc 17.9a 0.55 < 0.01 < 0.01
∑ n-6 11.1b 13.1a 12.8ab 13.5a 0.35 0.04 0.02
∑ n-3 1.25b 1.79b 1.59b 4.10a 0.35 0.01 < 0.01
n-6/n-3 9.11 8.75 8.98 6.94 0.44 0.26 0.11
PUFA/SFA 0.19b 0.25b 0.23b 0.31a 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
LNA/LA 0.12b 0.14b 0.13b 0.31a 0.03 0.01 < 0.01
∑ C18:1 16.0 17.5 17.9 17.9 0.38 0.21 0.06
∑ C18:1 trans- 3.33a 2.50b 2.59b 2.28b 0.09 < 0.01 < 0.01
∑ C18:1 cis- 12.8b 15.0a 15.3a 15.7a 0.40 0.03 < 0.01
∑ CLA 0.32b 0.42a 0.36ab 0.41a 0.02 0.05 0.11
∑ MCFA 27.0 27.4 27.8 27.1 0.27 0.69 0.83
∑ LCFA 73.0 72.6 72.2 72.8 0.27 0.72 0.69
BH Int 4.31a 3.57b 3.52b 3.31b 0.10 < 0.01 < 0.01
LA BH, % 64.6a 57.2b 56.1b 53.6b 1.26 < 0.01 < 0.01
LNA BH, % 94.2a 92.0a 91.5a 78.1b 1.88 < 0.01 < 0.01
RA/VA 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.01 0.24 0.44
  1. CON control diet, CAL Coleus amboinicus Lour. diet, SEM standard error of means, L linear response, VA vaccenic acid, RA rumenic acid, SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, LA linoleic acid, MCFA medium-chain fatty acids, LCFA long-chain fatty acids, BH int biohydrogenation intermediates, CLA conjugated linoleic acids, LA BH, biohydrogenation of linoleic acid, LNA BH biohydrogenation of linolenic acid
  2. Different superscripts (a, b, c) within the same row indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 and tended to significant at P < 0.10