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Table 5 The effect of CAL on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production (Exp. 1)

From: Dietary Coleus amboinicus Lour. decreases ruminal methanogenesis and biohydrogenation, and improves meat quality and fatty acid composition in longissimus thoracis muscle of lambs

Parameters CON CAL, % DM SEM P-value
10 15 20 Diet L
Rumen fermentation
 Redox potential, mV − 335 − 336 − 329 − 333 2.11 0.35 0.34
 pH 6.89 6.89 6.91 6.91 0.001 0.12 0.08
 NH3, mmol/L 9.19 9.19 9.11 9.18 0.25 0.99 0.96
 Total VFA, mmol/L 44.7 44.4 44.6 47.1 1.15 0.62 0.36
 VFA, molar percent
  Acetate (A) 61.3a 59.7ab 58.2b 56.9c 0.74 0.01 < 0.01
  Propionate (P) 22.9bc 22.7c 23.7ab 24.7a 0.37 < 0.01 < 0.01
  Isobutyrate 3.36 3.56 3.57 3.62 0.17 0.78 0.35
  Butyrate 8.19b 9.10a 9.36a 9.36a 0.14 0.02 < 0.01
  Isovalerate 1.01ab 1.12a 0.91b 0.93b 0.03 0.04 0.13
  Valerate 3.01c 3.76b 4.15ab 4.22a 0.14 < 0.01 < 0.01
  A/P ratio 2.75a 2.69a 2.51b 2.35b 0.07 < 0.01 < 0.01
 Digestibility, g/kg DM
  Dry matter 505 526 499 518 6.40 0.38 0.78
  Organic matter 516 530 504 524 6.36 0.47 0.99
  Crude protein 430b 489a 453ab 489a 7.82 0.01 0.03
  Neutral detergent fiber 491 506 483 488 7.11 0.66 0.59
 Total gas and methane emission
  Gas, mL 2902a 2984a 2920a 2534b 51.0 < 0.01 0.01
  Gas, mL/g DM 264a 271a 265a 230b 4.63 < 0.01 0.01
  CH4, mL 92.0a 79.0ab 71.1b 46.6c 3.84 < 0.01 < 0.01
  CH4, mL/g DM 8.64a 7.41ab 6.45b 4.22c 0.34 < 0.01 < 0.01
  CH4, mL/L gas 33.6a 28.3ab 24.2b 18.2c 1.24 < 0.01 < 0.01
  CH4, mL/g DMD 17.1a 14.0b 14.9ab 8.61c 0.70 < 0.01 < 0.01
  CH4, mL/g OMD 16.8a 13.0ab 12.4b 8.90b 0.69 < 0.01 < 0.01
  CH4, mL/g NDF 15.6 14.4 13.9 8.46 0.80 0.08 0.02
  1. CON control diet, CAL Coleus amboinicus Lour. diet, SEM standard error of means, L linear response, DM dry matter, NH3 ammonia, VFA volatile fatty acid, CH4 methane, DMD dry matter digestibility, OMD organic matter digestiblity
  2. Different superscripts (a, b, c) within the same row indicate significant differences (P < 0.05)