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Table 3 Immunomodulatory effects of resistant starch (RS) in animal studiesa

From: Resistant starch: Implications of dietary inclusion on gut health and growth in pigs: a review

Test animal Type of RS Immune effects References
Grower pigs High amylose corn and RPS (RS 11%) Increased TNF-α, MCP2, MUC2 [110]
Grower pigs Retrograded tapioca starch (RS 34%) Increased PPARγ
Decreased NFKB, TLR4, BCL6, ICOS, and CR2
[127]
Grower pigs RPS (RS > 13%) Increased IL-1β, F7, PolIII, TLR6
Decreased CD4, ITGB3, CTSB, C1S, SERPING1, TLR7
[43]
Grower pigs RPS (RS 15.3%) Increased MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC12 [128]
Finishing pigs High amylose corn starch (68.5% amylose) Increased IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β, and TNF-α in pigs with Prevotella-rich enterotype [129]
Pregnant sows Pea starch (Gestation RS 5.4%; Lactation RS 8.6%) Increased zonula occludens-1 in piglets [100]
Pregnant sows RPS (RS 5 %) Increased MUC2, IL6, DEF1B, cecal immunoglobulin A, and regulatory T cells [44]
Ducks RPS (RS 3.8%, 7.4% and 19.5%) Increased claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, MUC2, reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1β and endotoxin (RS 7.4%) [130]
  1. aBCL6 B-cell lymphoma 6, CD4 Cluster of differentiation 4, CR2 Complement receptor type 2, CTSB Cathepsin B, C1S Complement component 1S, DEF1B Defensin beta 1, ICOS Inducible T cell co-stimulator, IL Interleukin, ITGB3 Integrin subunit beta 3, MCP2 Monocyte chemoattractant protein 2, MUC Mucin, NFKB Nuclear factor kappa B, PolIII RNA polymerase III, PPARγ Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, RPS Raw potato starch, SERPING1 Serpin Family G Member 1, TLR Toll like receptor, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor alpha