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Table 2 Resistome in the digestive tract of poultry based on metagenome sequencing

From: A review of the resistome within the digestive tract of livestock

Sample Use of antimicrobials Name of antimicrobial Major findings Reference
Feces
(n = 6)
NM –Predominant by tetracycline, MLS, aminoglycoside, and β-lactam. [30]
Feces
(n = 4)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by aminoglycoside. [120, 121]
Feces
(n = 178)
Yes NS –Tetracycline, macrolide, β-lactam and aminoglycoside AMR made up the majority of ARGs. [122]
Feces
(n = 12)
Yes Chlortetracycline –Predominant by MDR, followed by aminoglycoside, and tetracycline.
–Chlortetracycline at low or therapeutic doses did not alter the relative abundance of total ARGs and predominant ARG classes.
[126, 138]
Feces
(n = 63)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, followed by MLS, aminoglycoside, and β-lactam.
–More abundant ARGs in the fecal samples collected in markets than farms.
[139]
Feces
(n = 15)
Yes Ampicillin –Predominant by tetracycline.
–Ampicillin led to the increase in the abundance of ARGs belonging to β-lactam and bacitracin, and decrease of those belonging to tetracycline.
–Increase in β-lactam, bacitracin-resistance, and MDR genes were more evident for oral than intramuscular administration of ampicillin.
[140]
Cecum
(n = 10)
Yes NS –Predominant by tetracycline, MLS, and cephalosporin resistant genes are the most abundant in two altitudes (730 m and 3300 m).
–Differential abundant MLS, cephalosporin, and tetracycline between low and high altitudes.
[141]
  1. ARG antimicrobial resistant gene, MLS macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, MDR multidrug resistance, NM not mentioned, NS not specified.