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Table 5 Effect of dietary natural astaxanthin (ASTA) supplementation on the sperm motility parameters of aging layer breeder roosters

From: Natural astaxanthin enhanced antioxidant capacity and improved semen quality through the MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in aging layer breeder roosters

Items Time, week ASTA levels, mg/kg SEM   P-value
0 25 50 100 ANOVA Linear Quadratic
Sperm motility, % 0 63.07 61.52 63.00 61.95 0.502 0.649 0.687 0.811
2 62.55b 65.20ab 67.95a 66.51a 0.615 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.049
4 62.00c 68.83b 69.78ab 71.67a 0.851 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
6 64.40b 65.77b 73.41a 76.23a 1.229 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.611
STR, % 0 79.76 79.73 79.51 79.32 0.783 0.997 0.839 0.965
2 78.08c 84.22b 87.14a 84.77ab 0.815 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
4 79.24c 84.27b 87.38a 86.64a 0.747 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
6 76.53b 85.28a 86.74a 87.41a 1.013 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
LIN, % 0 44.78 44.57 45.51 43.03 0.429 0.224 0.259 0.186
2 45.16c 53.48b 55.59a 55.96a 0.990 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
4 48.07c 54.10b 57.38a 57.47a 0.857 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
6 45.47c 61.14a 61.08a 58.09b 1.430 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
WOB, % 0 52.73 53.16 53.07 52.09 0.408 0.811 0.604 0.422
2 53.90c 58.39b 59.62b 63.09a 0.787 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.542
4 54.27c 61.10ab 59.13b 63.07a 0.774 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.080
6 52.96c 69.57a 71.07a 64.15b 1.620 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
VCL, μm/s 0 63.23 61.61 62.29 62.57 0.396 0.572 0.726 0.256
2 62.40c 67.73b 76.29a 69.39b 1.099 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
4 60.63d 70.74c 80.97b 85.91a 2.142 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.096
6 59.89c 73.60b 80.76a 83.07a 2.009 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
VSL, μm/s 0 29.60 29.75 29.38 28.56 0.447 0.810 0.416 0.607
2 31.67c 32.72bc 36.37b 46.35a 1.354 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
4 30.82c 38.92b 41.51b 45.98a 1.268 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.132
6 30.02b 40.53a 37.13a 41.16a 1.198 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.072
VAP, μm/s 0 32.26 32.00 31.06 32.38 0.406 0.834 0.939 0.458
2 31.19d 35.27c 41.78b 47.13a 1.332 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.468
4 33.00c 44.31b 45.59b 53.38a 1.629 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.148
6 32.09c 46.59a 47.37a 41.52b 1.439 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
BCF, Hz 0 3.57 3.53 3.67 3.55 0.032 0.423 0.802 0.498
2 3.53c 3.81b 3.97a 4.05a 0.045 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.024
4 3.53c 4.07b 4.60a 4.14b 0.084 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
6 3.59c 3.89b 4.44a 4.38a 0.079 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
ALH, μm 0 2.20 2.28 2.18 2.20 0.145 0.645 0.776 0.602
2 2.12c 2.31bc 2.46b 2.96a 0.076 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.082
4 2.35b 3.10a 3.05a 3.30a 0.087 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.015
6 2.11c 3.00b 3.02b 3.36a 0.107 < 0.01 0.011 < 0.01
  1. a–d Means within a row with no common superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05). Data represent the mean of six replicates. Abbreviations: SEM, standard error of the mean; ANOVA, analysis of variance; STR, straightness; LIN, linearity; WOB, wobble of the curvilinear trajectory; VCL, curvilinear velocity; VSL, straight linear velocity; VAP, average path velocity; BCF, beat cross frequency; ALH, amplitude of lateral head displacement