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Table 4 Effect of dietary natural astaxanthin (ASTA) supplementation on the semen volume, sperm viability, and sperm concentration of aging layer breeder roosters

From: Natural astaxanthin enhanced antioxidant capacity and improved semen quality through the MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in aging layer breeder roosters

Items Time, week ASTA levels, mg/kg SEM   P-value
0 25 50 100 ANOVA Linear Quadratic
Semen volume, mL 0 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.005 0.606 0.769 0.199
2 0.25b 0.31a 0.27b 0.27b 0.006 < 0.01 0.429 < 0.01
4 0.24b 0.31a 0.29a 0.29a 0.006 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
6 0.25b 0.34a 0.32a 0.31a 0.054 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Sperm viability, % 0 83.83 81.33 82.17 82.83 0.420 0.185 0.549 0.060
2 85.33b 89.17a 90.83a 90.83a 0.650 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.063
4 83.17c 88.67b 90.17ab 91.50a 0.750 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.011
6 85.67c 91.33ab 91.00b 94.67a 0.870 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.400
Sperm concentration, 108/mL 0 11.36 11.28 11.30 11.37 3.150 0.742 0.862 0.291
2 11.37b 11.49b 11.84a 11.96a 5.427 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.931
4 11.37c 12.04b 12.15b 12.42a 8.489 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
6 11.33c 12.57b 12.62b 12.97a 13.523 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
  1. a–c Means within a row with no common superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05). Data represent the mean of six replicates. Abbreviations: SEM, standard error of the mean; ANOVA, analysis of variance