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Table 3 Summary of electrochemical sensor platforms for detecting mycotoxins

From: Recent advances in immunoassays and biosensors for mycotoxins detection in feedstuffs and foods

Target Method Principle Electrode Sample LOD Ref.
FB1/DON Immunosensor Differential pulse voltammetry Indium tin oxide electrode integrated with PDMS microfluidic channel Corn 97/35 pg/mL [119]
OTA Immunosensor Differential pulse voltammetry Gold electrode Medicinal and edible malt 0.08 ng/mL [125]
ZEN Immunosensor Square wave voltammetry MoS2-Thi composite-modified glass carbon electrode Human biofluids 0.005 ng/mL [112]
ZEN Immunosensor Differential pulse voltammetry Screen-printed electrode Beer and wine 0.25 ng/mL [117]
AFB1 Immunosensor Impedimetric Cysteine/carbon nanotubes- modified gold electrode Corn flour 0.79 pg/g [126]
ZEN Immunosensor Differential pulse voltammetry Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan-modified glass carbon electrode Cereal and feedstuff 4.7 pg/mL [127]
OTA Immunosensor Differential pulse voltammetry Palladium nanoparticles-modified carbon felt electrode Coffee 0.096 ng/mL [128]
AFB1 Immunosensor Cyclic voltammetry Graphene quantum dots and AuNPs-modified Indium tin oxide electrode Maize 0.1 ng/mL [129]
ZEN/FB1 Aptasensor Differential pulse voltammetry Co-reduced molybdenum disulfide/AuNPs-modified glass carbon electrode Maize 0.5 pg/mL [122]
OTA/FB1 Aptasensor Differential pulse voltammetry Gold electrode Beer 0.47/0.26 pg/mL [121]
AFB1/OTA Ratiometric aptasensor Differential pulse voltammetry Gold electrode Corn and wheat 4.3/13.3 pg/mL [120]
OTA/FB1 Magneto-controlled aptasensor Square wave voltammetry Glassy carbon electrode Maize 20/5 pg/mL [130]
AFB1 Ratiometric aptasensor Alternating current voltammetry Thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide/AuNPs-modified glass carbon electrode Peanut 0.016 ng/mL [123]
T-2 Aptasensor Differential pulse voltammetry Molybdenum disulfide/polyaniline/chitosan AuNPs-modified glassy carbon electrode Beer 1.79 fg/mL [113]
AFB1 Aptasensor Square wave voltammetry Gold electrode Beer 2 nmol/L [131]
ZEN Aptasensor Square wave voltammetry Cysteamine-hydrochloride/1,4-phenylene diisocyanate-modified gold electrode Maize grain 0.017 ng/mL [132]
AFM1 Aptasensor Impedance voltammetry PtNPs/Fe-based metal organic frameworks-modified glassy carbon electrode Powder and pasteurized milk 2 pg/mL [133]
ZEN Molecularly imprinted sensor Impedimetric Poly (o-phenylenediamine)- modified screen-printed gold electrode Corn flakes 0.2 ng/mL [134]
DON Molecularly imprinted sensor Impedimetric Poly o-phenylenediamine-modified screen-printed gold electrode Food 0.3 ng/mL [135]
AFB2 Molecularly imprinted sensor Differential pulse voltammetry ZnO-NPs/chitosan/polypyrrole modified screen-printed electrode Fresh and pasteurized milk 0.2 and 0.7 fg/mL [124]