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Table 2 Summary of optical biosensor platforms for detecting mycotoxins

From: Recent advances in immunoassays and biosensors for mycotoxins detection in feedstuffs and foods

Target Principle Materials Sample LOD Ref.
OTA/AFB1 Colorimetric Aptamer, Fe3O4/graphene oxide and Fe3O4@Au Agricultural products 0.5/5 ng/mL [76]
AFB1/AFG1/AFM1/OTA/ZEN Colorimetric gold and silver nanoparticles Pistachio, wheat, coffee and milk 2.7/ 7.3/ 2.1/3.3/ 7.0 ng/mL [77]
AFB1 Colorimetric Aptamer and AuNPs Animal feed and milk 10 nmol/L [97]
ZEN Colorimetric Aptamer and AuNPs with peroxidase-like activity Corn and corn oil 10 ng/mL [98]
AFB1/OTA Fluorescent Aptamer, DNA tweezers Food 0.035 ng/mL [83]
AFB1/OTA/FB1 Fluorescent protein microarray Antibody, TiO2-modified porous silicon Rice, corn and wheat 0.243/0.433/0.093 ng/mL [99]
ZEN/OTA/FB1 Fluorescent Aptamer, upconversion nanoparticle and gold nanoparticle Corn 30/10/0.02 pg/mL [100]
ZEN/FB1 Fluorescent Aptamer, gold nanorods and upconversion nanoparticles Corn 0.01/0.003 ng/mL [101]
AFB1/FB1 Fluorescent Aptamer, graphene oxide/Fe3O4 and CdTe quantum dots Peanut 6.7/16.2 pg/mL [85]
OTA/OTB Fluorescent Nanobody, Eu/Tb nanosphere Rice 0.06/0.12 ng/mL [20]
FB1/OTA Fluorescent Aptamer, time-resolved nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles Maize 0.019/0.015 pg/mL [81]
OTA/AFB1 Fluorescent Aptamer, SiO2@QDs and magnetic nanoparticles Corn 0.067/1.7 pg/mL [102]
OTA/ZEN Fluorescent Antibody, upconversion-encoded microspheres and phycoerythrin Corn 0.34/0.41 ng/mL [82]
AFB1/ZEN Fluorescent quenching Aptamer, AuNCs and WS2 nanosheet Maize 0.34/0.53 pg/mL [84]
ZEN/T-2/AFB1 Fluorescent quenching Aptamer, time-resolved nanoparticles and WS2 nanosheet Maize 0.51/0.33/0.40 pg/mL [103]
AFB1 Fluorescent quenching Aptamer, CdZnTe QDs and AuNPs Peanut 20 pg/mL [79]
OTA Fluorescent quenching Aptamer, nitrogen doped carbon dots and AgNPs Flour and beer 8.7 nmol/L [80]
AFB1/OTA Chemiluminescence Antibody and AgNPs Red yeast rice 0.44/0.83 pg/mL [87]
DON Electrochemiluminescence Antibody, NPCo/Co3O4–Au and RuSi@Ru (bpy)32+ Wheat flour 1 pg/mL [104]
OTA Electrochemiluminescence MIP, CdTe QDs and [Ru (bpy)3]2+ Starch 0.25 fg/mL [90]
AFB1 Electrochemiluminescence Antibody and ZnCdS@ZnS quantum dots Lotus seed 0.01 ng/mL [92]
AFM1 Electrochemiluminescence Aptamer, AuNPs-magnetic nanoparticles and luminol-functionalized silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide Milk 0.05 ng/mL [105]
OTA Electrochemiluminescence CdS QDs, Cy5-labeled DNA Beer and wine 0.012 nmol/L [91]
AFB1/OTA/ZEN/DON SPR Antibody and self-assembled monolayer SPR chips Cereal 0.59 /1.27 /7.07/ 3.26 ng/mL [106]
DON/OTA SPR Antibody, nanostructured gold chips Beer 17/7 ng/mL [94]
AFB1 SPR Antibody, AuNPs and self-assembled monolayer Au chips Wheat 0.003 nmol/L [96]
AFB1 SPR Antibody, gold chips Grains 2.51 ppb [107]
AFB1 SPR Aptamer, gold chips Red wine 0.4 nmol/L [108]