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Table 2 On reduced crude protein diets for broilers: consideration for the linear programming matrices.

From: Progress of amino acid nutrition for diet protein reduction in poultry

Item Characteristic
Ingredient matrix
 Soybean meal Improved varieties: amino acid levels and digestibility, carbohydrate fraction adjustments, improved oil content, and ability to utilize full fat beans
 Insect meal Increased industrialized production of insect meal resulting in decreased costs; improved amino acid digestibility
 Algae meal Increased industrialized production of algae meal resulting in decreased costs; transition from salt water to fresh water systems with reduced climate impact
 Single-cell protein meal Increased industrialized production of single-cell protein sources resulting in decreased costs; improved amino acid digestibility
L-valine Free base L-valine is being produced commercially and used in formulation. Its inclusion allows for reduced diet costs, decreased nitrogen excretion, and a mechanism to feed balanced branched-chain amino acids
L-glutamine and betaine Research is necessary to assess if L-glutamine and/or betaine can aid intestinal integrity in birds fed low CP diets
 Feed-grade amino acids Increased manufacturing of essential (e.g., beyond L-valine) and non-essential amino acids at low cost
 Feed-grade amino acid peptides Increased manufacturing of di- and tri-peptides with good digestibility at low costs
 Feed-grade enzymes Availability of feed-grade enzymes with affordable pricing and consistent efficacy have given nutritionists a tool to improve ingredient quality
 Increasing feed phases Adding diet phases allows for closer meeting the birds’ need and minimizing excesses
 Sex separate feeding As female broilers require an order of 10 to 15% less amino acid levels, separate or separate phased diets per sex can increase nitrogen efficiency
Nutrient matrix
 Protein level Less dependence on diet protein and more on amino acid supply by formulating to non-essential amino acids
 Protein expression Can converting crude protein to true protein aid in predicting a critical amino acid supply?
 Digestive dynamics As CP decreases, more cereals enter diets with less dietary oil sources, and it is known that feed-grade amino acids interact with starch regarding digestion. Nutritionists should create ratios to limit rapid starch in low CP diets
 Ideal protein for digestible amino acids Robust Lys needs must be assessed as modern broiler genetics continue to be improved and express dietary needs on a digestible basis
 Threonine Threonine must continue to be assessed as antibiotic growth promoters are removed from diets, as well as the balance regarding glycine plus serine
 Branched-chain amino acids Assess limiting needs singularly and together in practical low CP diets
 Phenylalanine + tyrosine Assess limiting needs in low CP diets in and relation to the branched-chain amino acids
 Histidine Assess needs in low CP diets for broilers using a pre-experimental adjustment period
 Electrolyte balance Reduced protein results in less soybean meal and monitoring electrolyte balance from the potassium reduction is critical
 Non-essential amino acid levels As protein continues to be reduced, using nutrient minimums for non-essential amino acids will be required to maintain a nitrogen pool