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Table 1 Least cost formulation considerations that occurred from 1950 to present allowing for a reduction in CP in poultry diets.

From: Progress of amino acid nutrition for diet protein reduction in poultry

Item Characteristic
Ingredient matrix
 Removal of feed grade amino acid maximum The maximum constraint was used to limit the amount of feed grade amino acid entering formulation which prevented deficiencies of other amino acids whereby minimums were unknown, but did so at a cost, with excesses. Its removal reduced CP and diet costs, but required knowledge of most amino acid minimums
 Addition of digestible amino acid values to ingredients The addition of digestible amino acid values for ingredients and use of digestible amino acid nutrient minimums in formation, rather than total levels, allowed for better precision formation
 Increased ingredient analyses More near infrared spectrometer assays were used to compare calculated to predicted analyzed values of numerus ingredients
Nutrient matrix
 Removal of CP nutrient minimums Least cost diets that solved for CP could be used to assure no deficiencies, but the result is diets that contain excess nitrogen and high costs, as opposed to using amino acid minimums
 Addition of digestible amino acid minimums Formulating to digestible amino acids allowed for reduced CP and more feed grade amino acids meeting shadow values